A partial list of references that relate to the science of Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis (HTMA).
- Comments from research reports.
- Books about hair Tissue Mineral Analysis (hTMA).
- Medical journals, articles and reports.
Comments From Research Reports
Several research programs for studying and establishing hair trace mineral concentrations have been implemented since 1965 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. These research programs have been coordinated under “Nuclear-based Methods for the Analysis of Pollutants in Human Hair.” Hair was chosen by the I.A.E.A. due to the concentration of minerals in the hair and its reflection of both external and internal contamination. The bulk of data on trace element concentrations has been reported from hair samples obtained from the scalp.
Ryabukhin, T.S.: International Coordinated Program on Activation Analysis of Trace Element Pollutants in Human Hair. Hair, Trace Elements, and Human Illness. Brown, A. C.; Crounse, R. G., ed. Praeger Publications, 1980.
Bioassay of hair is attractive as it is an effective bio-concentrator, samples can be easily stored, the concentration reflects an integrated value, and, finally, the measurement of the (234)U/(238)U isotopic ratio in digested hair samples by MC-ICPMS is feasible and highly informative.Karpas Z, Lorber A, Sela H, Paz-Tal O, Hagag Y, Kurttio P, Salonen L., Measurement of the 234U/238U ratio by MC-ICPMS in drinking water, hair, nails, and urine as an indicator of uranium exposure source. Health Phys. 2005 Oct;89(4):315-21.
Human head hair is a recording filament that can reflect metabolic changes of many elements over long periods of time and thus furnish a print-out of post nutritional events.Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Flynn, A.; Hill, O. A.: Trace Element Nutriture and Metabolism Through Head Hair Analysis. Trace Substances in Environmental Health. Hemphill, D. D., ed. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, 1972.
It is well known that nutritional mineral deficiency can impair neurological development. Some transitional nutrients can cause later-life health disturbances when deficient in the diet, but in excess can be just as harmful and include iron, copper, manganese, zinc and others. Heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are also neurotoxins and when present early in life can contribute to impaired neuro-development and detrimental health effects later in life and have been called the fetal origins of disease. Hair concentrations of cadmium compared to reference groups were found to be higher in children with mental retardation, learning disabilities, dyslexia and lower I.Q.Metals and Neurotoxicology. Wright, RO, et al. J. Of Nutr. 138,12, 2007.
Hair, blood and urine minerals analyzed in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic controls showed that the mean levels of zinc, manganese and chromium were significantly lower in the blood and scalp hair of patients diagnosed with diabetes. Higher levels of copper and iron were also found in the scalp hair of the diabetic group as well.Copper, Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Nickel and Zinc Levels in Biological Samples of Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Kazi, TS, et al. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 122,1, 2008.
Statistical evaluation of these data by multi variant analysis (MANOVA) using a contrast matrix and by discriminant analysis showed that elemental hair anomalies can be used to diagnose correctly the above-mentioned pathologies, demonstrating the usefulness of hair analysis as a complementary tool for the detection of disturbances in calcium/bone metabolism.Miekeley, N., et al. Elemental Anomalies in Hair as Indicators of Endocrinologic Pathologies and Deficiencies in Calcium and Bone Metabolism., J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 15, 1, 2005
The consensus of most workers in the field is that if hair samples are collected properly, cleaned and prepared for analysis correctly and analyzed by the best analytical methods, using standards and blanks as required, in a clean and reliable laboratory, by experienced personnel, the data are reliable.Toxic Trace Metals in Mammalian Hair and Nails. United States Environmental Protection Agency Publication 1979; EPA-600/4: 79: 049
A study of men over a period of thirteen years found that for each microgram of mercury found in the hair, the risk of acute coronary events increased by an average of eleven percent and cardiovascular disease death rate by ten percent.Mercury as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease. J. Nutr. Biochem. 18, 2007.
An example of how mineral intake is reflected in the hair was demonstrated in a study of several thousand Iraqi peasants, whose diet contained grain heavily treated with fungicides. The fungicides contained organic mercury, which was reflected in higher concentrations in the hair when consumption was highest and decreased when consumption was lowest. Hair concentrations correlated directly with the extent of symptoms.Al-Shahristani, H.; Al-Haddad, I. K.: Mercury Content of Hair From Normal and Poisoned Persons. J Radioanalytical Chem 1973; 15. Al-Shahristani, H.; Shihab, K. M.: Variation of Biological Half-Life of Methylmercury in Man. Arch Environ Health 1974; 28.
Hair samples collected and analyzed from five countries with known arsenic sources, both high and low included the United States, Canada, and People’s Republic of China, Bangladesh and Nepal. Hair arsenic concentration in all hair samples correlated with the amount of arsenic in drinking water and revealed the low intake of selenium in areas of high arsenic concentrations. The results demonstrate the viability of hair as a noninvasive biomonitor in assessing aspects of dietary Se and environmental As exposure.Spallholz JE, Boylan LM, Palace V, Chen J, Smith L, Rahman MM, Robertson JD., Arsenic and Selenium in Human Hair; A comparison of Five Countries With and Without Arsenicosis., Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005 Aug;106(2):133-44.
The proliferation of trace element analysis as a tool for biological investigation of nutrition, growth and development, and disease processes has led to consideration of (hair) trace element analysis as a means not only of present evaluation and estimation, but also as a technique for the reconstruction of past biological events in an organism.Gilbert, R. I.: Trace Elements in Human Hair and Bone. Hair, Trace Elements and Human Illness Brown, A.C.; Crounse, R. G. ed. Praeger Publications, 1980.
This study was performed to establish a relationship between elements in the serum, red cells and hair and included one hundred and seventy-four children. Tests measured the concentrations of the heavy metals, cadmium and lead, as well as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron. Serum and red blood cell concentrations of cadmium and lead were within normal allowable levels, but hair levels exceeded maximum levels. Supplementation of magnesium and vitamin B6 was begun in children with elevated hair heavy metals. Follow-up tests showed a marked reduction in the lead and cadmium concentration in the hair and erythrocytes.Concentrations of Selected Bioelements and Toxic Metals and Their Influence on Health Status of Children and Youth Residing in Szczecin. Kedzierska, E. Ann. Acad. Med. Stetin. 49, 2003.
The significance of hair analysis as a biological indicator of abnormal intake of trace elements in man is confirmed. Geographical variations of hair trace element concentrations, on the whole, depend on geochemical conditions or nutritional factors.Batzevich VA., Hair trace element analysis in human ecology studies., Sci Total Environ. 1995 Mar 15;164(2):89-98.
The result of research studies indicate that hair mineral analysis can be useful as a diagnostic tool in the examination of trace metal exposure, including abnormal nutritional intake, and may assist in the study of certain mental states. They (hair mineral analysis) may suggest mineral imbalances present in the body that perhaps could be rectified by a mineral supplemented diet. Hair metal testing is a fascinating new diagnostic tool and often gives unexpected clues to mineral imbalances in the body. The authors would support this statement from the results that they have accumulated to date.Barlow, P. J.; Kapel, M.: Metal and Sulfur Contents of Hair in Relation to Certain Mental States. Hair, Trace Elements, and Human Illness Brown, A.C.; Crounse, R. G., eds. Praeger Publications, 1980.
By implementation of statistic pattern recognition methods, it has been found that the concentrations of trace elements in hair can remarkably reflect different recovery phases of NPC patients.Leung PL, Huang HM., Following the recovery of naso-pharyngeal cancer patients by trace elements in hair using statistical pattern recognition methods., Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998 Jun;62(3):235-53.
We suggest that the changed element status (Zn, Mg, and Cu) in hair may play an indicator role in the diagnosis of epileptic patients.Ilhan A, Uz E, Kali S, Var A, Akyol O., Serum and hair trace element levels in patients with epilepsy and healthy subjects: does the antiepileptic therapy affect the element concentrations of hair?, Eur J Neurol. 1999 Nov;6(6):705-9.
Mercury, cadmium and other heavy metals have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups, inactivating enzymatic reactions, amino acids, and sulfur-containing antioxidants. Cadmium concentrations in the kidney induce renal dysfunction and contribute to hypertension due to sodium retention, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and zinc deficiency. Heavy metal toxicity should be evaluated in any patient with hypertension, cardiovascular heart disease, or other vascular disease. Specific testing for acute and chronic toxicity and total body burden using hair, nail, urine and serum with baseline and provoked evaluation should be done.The Role of Mercury and Cadmium Heavy Metals In Vascular Disease, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease and Myocardial Infarction. Houston, MC. Altern. Ther. Health Med. 13,2,2007.
Various changes in the content of trace elements in biological samples taken from patients with idiopathic scoliosis are not accidental. What might bring a shift in our knowledge is speciation of various forms of trace elements in the organism in relation to idiopathic scoliosis.Changes of Selenium, Copper and Zinc Content in Hair and Serum of Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis. Dastych, M, et al. 2008 Orthopedic Research Society. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Orthop. Res.
The constituents of the hair is determined by the entry of substances from external sources and from substances which enter it from the blood stream.Hopps, H. C.: The Biological Bases for Using Hair and Nail for Analysis of Trace Elements. Sci Tot Environ 1977; 7.
The analysis of blood, excreted by-products, and human head hair represents method for determining body element levels.Pihl, R. O.; Drake, H.; Vrana, F. Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.: Hair Analysis in Learning and Behavior Problems. Hair, Trace Elements, and Human Illness. Brown, A. C.; Crounse, R. G., eds. Praeger Publications, 1980.
Thus, it is observed that there exists some positive correlation between element levels in hair and nails and CHD, hypertension, and diabetes of these subjects.Sukumar A, Subramanian R., Elements in hair and nails of urban residents of New Delhi. CHD, hypertensive, and diabetic cases., Biol Trace Elem Res. 1992 Jul;34(1):89-97.
Hair chromium levels were analyzed in a healthy elderly population and an age-matched control group with type 2 diabetes. Lower hair chromium levels were observed in the diabetic group.Longitudinal Hair Chromium Profiles of Elderly Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Stupar, J., et al. Metabolism. 56,1, 2007.
A hybrid algorithm was applied to the hair minerals from a group of healthy individuals compared to those with diabetes and was found to be a good symptom index that could recognize individuals with type 2 diabetes.Hybrid Progressive Algorithm to Recognize Type II Diabetes Based on Hair Mineral Contents. Huang, H, et al. Conf. Proc. IEEE, Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 5, 2005.
Lead and mercury levels were analyzed in eighty one hair and blood samples obtained at delivery of newborns. The results found that hair mercury and lead negatively correlated with calcium pump activity in maternal and cord blood erythrocytes.Hair Mercury Negatively Correlates with Calcium Pump Activity in Maternal and Cord Blood Erythrocytes. Huel, G, et al. Environ. Hlth. Perspect. 116,2, 2008.
Higher serum magnesium was associated with lower bone mineral density at the spine, whereas high hair magnesium was associated with higher bone mineral density. The study concluded that magnesium in serum and hair was associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women and the ratio of serum calcium to magnesium appears to be a significant indicator of bone density.Associations of Calcium and Magnesium in Serum and Hair with Bone Mineral Density in Premenopausal Women. Song, CH, et al. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 118, 1, 2007.
Hair levels of iron, zinc and selenium were found lower in the study group of fifty-two children diagnosed with anemia, compared to controls.Serum and Hair Levels of Zinc, Selenium, Iron, and Copper in Children with Iron Deficiency Anemia. Gugoze, MK, et al. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 111, 2006.
The analysis of recently grown hair for zinc provides a biomarker of recent zinc status.Rush E, Li L, Chandu V, Whiting R., Hair zinc concentrations not subject to seasonal variation in adults in New Zealand., Biol Trace Elem Res. 2003 Dec;95(3):193-202.
These data confirm that the analysis of Zn in hair represents an addition to conventional materials in the assessment of the nutritional status of groups of individuals.Contiero E, Folin M., Trace elements nutritional status. Use of hair as a diagnostic tool., Biol Trace Elem Res. 1994 Feb;40(2):151-60.
Dietary levels of some of the essential micro-elements have been reported to correspond to hair concentrations of the elements.Reinhold, J. G.; Kfoury, G. A.; Ghalambor, M. A.; Jean, C.: Zinc and Copper Concentrations in Hair of Iranian Villagers. Am J Clin Nutr 1966; 18. Strain, W. H.; Steadman, L. T.; Lankau, C. A.; Berliner, W. P.; Pories, W. J.: Analysis of Zinc Levels in Hair for the Diagnosis of Zinc Deficiency in Man. J Lab Clin Med 1966; 68.
Hair mineral analysis was performed on over three-hundred adult females with BMI’s ranging between low, normal and high. Significant differences were noted in zinc levels between women with a low BMI compared to those with a high BMI. The obese group had the lowest zinc levels as well as the lowest ratios of sodium/potassium, iron/copper and zinc/copper. ..we suggest that hair concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, K, Na and Zn may be correlated with adult female BMI, but further studies are needed.Wang, CT, et al., Concentrations of Calcium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium and Zinc in Adult Females hair with Different Body Mass Indexes in Taiwan., Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 43, 4, 2005
Levels of lead, cadmium and nickel in scalp hair, blood and urine samples were significantly higher in groups of exposed workers compared to those of a control group. The determination of toxic metals in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure.Evaluation of Toxic Metals in Biological Samples (Scalp Hair, Blood and Urine) of Steel Mill Workers by Electrothermal Atomic Adsorption Spectrometry. Afridi, HI, et al. Toxicol. Ind. Hlth. 9, 2006.
Mineral levels of one hundred and twenty male lung cancer patients were compared to one hundred-fifty controls. The study showed that the average cadmium concentration was high in the blood and scalp hair of lung cancer patients at different stages compared to controls.Determination of Cadmium in Whole Blood and Scalp Hair Samples of Pakistani Male Lung Cancer Patients by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Kazi, TG, et al. Sci. Total Environ. 389,2, 2008.
Hair tissue mineral analysis was performed on one-hundred and twenty individuals. Supplementation of magnesium and vitamin B6 was implemented in the treatment groups and placebos in the control group. Repeat hair mineral analysis revealed a positive influence as a result of supplementation. Magnesium levels were increased in the hair along with a significant reduction of the heavy metals, lead and cadmium. The above mentioned results indicate a positive influence of magnesium supplementation on the decrease of lead and cadmium hair content in the individuals studied.Kozielec T, Salacka A, Karakiewicz B., The influence of magnesium supplementation on concentrations of chosen bioelements and toxic metals in adult human hair. Magnesium and chosen bioelements in hair., Magnes Res. 2004 Sep;17(3):183-8.
From the analyses, it was clear that hair concentrations of Ca, Fe, and Zn could reflect the effects of supplementation.Leung PL, Huang HM, Sun DZ, Zhu MG., Hair concentrations of calcium, iron, and zinc in pregnant women and effects of supplementation., Biol Trace Elem Res. 1999 Sep;69(3):269-82.
One such procedure which has shown great potential, at least for the determination of micro-element nutriture…, is the use of hair as the biological sample. Perhaps an even more important advantage would be that hair, by the very nature of the sample, should reflect a rather long-term nutritional state rather than recent (i.e. previous meal or day) dietary intake.Sauberlich, H. E.; Scala, J. H. Department of Nutrition, Letterman Army Institute of Research, San Francisco, California. Dowdy, R. P. Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Food Systems Management, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri
Hair may provide a continuous record of nutritional status.Maugh, T. H. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine. Science1978; 202.
A positive correlation of selenium levels was found between samples of umbilical cord blood and the newborn’s hair. Correlation was also found between placenta and umbilical cord blood and between cord blood and maternal blood.Selenium Levels in Related Biological Samples: Human Placenta, Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood, Hair and Nails. Lorenzo, A, et al. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 19,1, 2005.
Changes in the hair iron concentrations were accompanied by similar changes in the concentrations of the markers most commonly used to diagnose and monitor iron deficiency. The results suggest that quantification of hair iron may be useful to complement evaluations of the body iron status.Bisse E, Renner F, Sussmann S, Scholmerich J, Wieland H., Hair iron content: possible marker to complement monitoring therapy of iron deficiency in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases?, Clin Chem. 1996 Aug;42(8 Pt 1):1270-4.
Hair calcium concentration did reflect the risk of CHD on a population basis and was strongly influenced by both the hardness of the water supply and the annual sunshine hours which also independently affected the SMR for CHD.MacPherson A, Bacso J., Relationship of hair calcium concentration to incidence of coronary heart disease., Sci Total Environ. 2000 Jun 8;255(1-3):11-9.
This study explored calcium and magnesium levels in patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia compared to matched controls. Findings revealed significantly higher hair levels of both calcium and magnesium in the affected group. Wilcoxon rank sum tests showed that patients with fibromyalgia had significantly higher calcium and magnesium levels than the control subjects at alpha = .025 and .05, respectively.Ng SY., Hair calcium and magnesium levels in patients with fibromyalgia: a case center study., J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1999 Nov-Dec;22(9):586-93.
Zinc and copper concentrations were measured in the hair and urine of patients who were hospitalized for myocardial infarction (MI). Mineral concentrations were also measured in descendants of the patients and compared to a control group. The study suggests that in MI patients, a genetic disorder of mineral imbalance at a younger age can be used in predicting susceptibility to heart disease in individuals prior to onset and diagnosis in asymptomatic patients.Detection of Potentially Myocardial Infarction Susceptible Individuals in Indian Population: A Mathematical Model Based on Copper and Zinc Status. Taneja, SK, et al. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 75, 2000.
It is concluded that hair metal analysis in samples close to the scalp is not seriously invalidated by sources of external contamination.Cadmium, Copper, Lead and Zinc Concentration in Human Scalp and Pubic Hair. Wilhelm, M, et al. Instit, Toxicol. Univ. of Dussseldorf, W. Wermany. 199-206, Vol. 92, 1990.
Nickel- sensitive women had significantly higher levels of nickel in nails, hair and plasma than control subjects.Nickel in Nails, Hair and Plasma from Nickel-Hypersensitive Women. Gammelgaard, et al. Acta. Derm. Venereol. 417, Vol. 70, 1990.
High content of mercury in hair may be a risk factor for acute coronary events and CVD, CHD, and all-cause mortality in middle-aged eastern Finnish men.Virtanen JK, Voutilainen S, Rissanen TH, Mursu J, Tuomainen TP, Korhonen MJ, Valkonen VP, Seppanen K, Laukkanen JA, Salonen JT., Mercury, fish oils, and risk of acute coronary events and cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and all-cause mortality in men in eastern Finland., Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Jan;25(1):228-33. Epub 2004 Nov 11.
The elemental analysis of hair is becoming increasingly popular for the assessment of nutritional status.Katz, S. A. Professor of Chemistry, Rutgers University.: The Use of Hair as a Biopsy Material for Trace Elements in the Body. Am Lab 1979; Feb.
Regarding certain factors (age, sex, health, occupation, etc.), the influence causing the change in element levels is obvious, whereas the influence of other factors (structure of hair, height and weight of the subject, etc.) is obscure. It is very important to consider all the factors at the time of investigation for effective interpretation, validity, and application of results of hair analysis.Sukumar A., Factors influencing levels of trace elements in human hair., Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2002;175:47-78.
Research literature supports the view that trace element content of the hair and nail reflect body intake…from which one can conclude that hair and nail are suitable samples for evaluating body stores.Hopps, H. C.: The Biological Bases for Using Hair and Nail for Analysis of Trace Elements. Trace Substances In Environmental Health VIII. Hemphill, D.D., ed. University of Missouri, Columbia. 1974.
This reference range of trace elements in the mane hair of racing horses should be used to assess disease and the nutritional status in equine practice.Asano R, Suzuki K, Otsuka T, Otsuka M, Sakurai H., Concentrations of toxic metals and essential minerals in the mane hair of healthy racing horses and their relation to age., J Vet Med Sci. 2002 Jul;64(7):607-10.
Hair concentrations may provide useful information on longer term nutrition.Casey, C. E.; Hambidge, K. M.: Trace Element Deficiencies in Man. Advances In Nutritional Research Vol.3. Draper, H. H., ed. Plenum Pub., 1980. Hambidge, K. M.; Walravens, P.A.: Trace Elements in Nutrition. Prac Ped 1974, 1:1
The patients were divided into three groups of ten; one group was studied two years after total hip replacement, one at four years, and one at six years. High levels of titanium and aluminum were found in the hair, especially in the group studied six years after implantation, while the levels of the three ions in the blood and urine were not significant.Trinchi V, Nobis M, Cecchele D., Emission spectrophotometric analysis of titanium, aluminum, and vanadium levels in the blood, urine, and hair of patients with total hip arthroplasties., Ital J Orthop Traumatol. 1992;18(3):331-9.
The study holds promise that hair selenium may be used as a monitoring tool for low-level occupational exposure to selenium.Srivastava AK, Gupta BN, Bihari V, Gaur JS, Mathur N., Hair selenium as a monitoring tool for occupational exposures in relation to clinical profile., J Toxicol Environ Health. 1997 Aug 8;51(5):437-45.
The results of the quality assurance program, which included 31 participants on four continents, are described. Of the participating laboratories, 92% consistently meet QA/QC performance limits for the determination of Hg in human hair.Gill US, Schwartz HM, Bigras L., Results of multiyear international interlaboratory comparison program for mercury in human hair., Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2002 Nov;43(4):466-72.
The hair concentrations of Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn in the three groups of gravida were lower or significantly lower than those in controls. In sera, the differences did not show statistical significance in most casesHuang HM, Leung PL, Sun DZ, Zhu MG., Hair and serum calcium, iron, copper, and zinc levels during normal pregnancy at three trimesters., Biol Trace Elem Res. 1999 Aug;69(2):111-20.
There is now a considerable body of literature on the use of hair in forensic science, in the diagnosis of disease states, and in the assessment of nutritional status.Stevens, B. J.: Determination of Aluminum, Copper, and Zinc in Human Hair. Atomic Spectroscopy 1983; 4:45
Results showed that hair copper concentrations could be correlated with the degree of severity, in that the higher the copper burdens, the more severe the autism. Levels of lead and mercury were also found higher in the affected group and increased with the degree of severity. Whereas, selenium and magnesium were significantly different in the low functioning group of children compared to others in the affected group as well as controls.Priya, L, Geetha, A. Level of Trace Elements (Copper, Zinc, Magnesium and Selenium) and Toxic Elements (Lead and Mercury) in the Hair and Nail of Children with Autism. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 2010.
hTMA is a good indicator of exposure to uranium and without these tests many individuals would unknowingly be exposed to not only heavy metals such as uranium and other metals, but radon gas as well.Kehagia, K, et al. Hair Analysis as an Indicator of Exposure to Uranium. Radial.Prot. Dosimetry. Nov. 2010.
Both deficiency and excess of trace elements was shown to be of pathogenetic value in the development of thyroid disease.Hair Trace Elements in Patients with Goiter. Farkhutdinova, LM, et al. Klin Lab Diagn. Aug. (8) 2006.
Imbalances in the optimum levels of trace elements may adversely affect the biological process and are associated with many disease processes.Rahman, A. et al. Zinc, Manganese, Calcium, Copper and Cadmium Level in Scalp Hair Samples of Schizophrenic Patients. Biol.Trace Elem. Res. 127,2, 2009.
As part of the metabolic syndrome, the optimal calcium and magnesium concentrations in hair tissue may reflect decreased risk of metabolic syndrome.Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis and Metabolic Syndrome. Park, SB, et al. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 130,3, 2009.
Their research findings suggested that some minerals such as arsenic, selenium and probably iodine, zinc, sodium and vanadium contribute to the regulation of cancer and that a metallomics study using multiple logistic regression analysis is a useful tool for estimating cancer risks.Metallomics Study Using Hair Mineral Analysis and Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis: Relationship Between Cancer and Minerals. Yasuda, H, et al. Environ. Health Prev.Med. 24,5, 2009.
Heavy metals are being increasingly recognized as mediators or factors in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease and that a deficiency, lack of homeostatic control or excess intake of some metals may lead to cardiovascular mortality.Afridi, HI., et al. Evaluation of Toxic Elements in Scalp Hair Samples of Myocardial Infarction Patients at Different Stages as Related to Controls. Biol. Trace Elem. Res.134, 1, 2010.
Hair lead levels have been found to correlate well with body lead contamination.Black AP, Knight R, Batty J, Haswell SJ, Lindow SW., An analysis of maternal and fetal hair lead levels., BJOG. 2002 Nov;109(11):1295-7.
Books About Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis (HTMA) and Essential Mineral Balance
- Bland, J, Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis, An Emergent Diagnostic Technique, Thorsons Publishing, 1984.
- Body Chemistry and Behavior, A Course Manual,American Institute For Biosocial Research.
- Brown, AC and Crounse, RG, Hair, Trace Elements, and Human Illness, Praeger Publishers, 1980.
- Casdorph, HR and Walker, M, Toxic Metal Syndrome, Avery Publishing, 1995.
- Chatsworth, L and Chatsworth, C, Energy, Healthview Publishing, 1985.
- Chatt, A, Katz, SS, Hair Analysis: Applications in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, VCH Publishing, 1989.
- Davies, IJT, The Clinical Significance of the Essential Biological Metals, C.C. Thomas, 1972.
- Droesti, I, Smith, R, Neurobiology of the Trace Elements, Volumes I and II, Humana Press, 1983.
- Eck P., Toxic Metals in Human Health and Disease, Eck Institute of Applied Nutrition and Bioenergetics, Ltd.,1989.
- Eck P., Healthview Newsletter, Interview #27-29, Healthview, 1981.
- Eck P., Watts D., The Most Commonly Asked Questions About Hair Analysis, Eck Institute of Applied Nutrition and Bioenergetics, Ltd., 1983.
- Eck P., Watts D., et al., Healthscope Newsletter, Issues 1-22, The Eck Institute of Applied Nutrition and Bioenergetics, Ltd., 1982-1985.
- Eck, P, The Mineral Approach To Metabolic Dysfunctions, an interview, Analytical Research Labs, 1982.
- Eck, P, Watts D., Foreman, D, Lifting The Cloak Of Mystery From Hair Analysis: A New Approach, Analytical Research Labs, 1982.
- Frompovich, CJ, Understanding Body Chemistry and Hair Mineral Analysis, C.J. Frompovich, 1982.
- Gittleman, AL, Why Am I Always So Tired, Harper San Francisco, 1999.
- Goyer, RA et al, Medical Toxicology, Academic Press, 1995.
- Hemphill, DD, Cothern, CR and Beck, B, Trace Substances in Environmental Health, Annual Conferences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 1972-1992.
- Kutsky, R, Handbook of Vitamins, Minerals and Hormones, 2nd edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1981.
- Leek, R, Hair Analysis, R. Leek, 1980.
- Malter, R, The Strands of Health; A Guide To Understanding Hair Mineral Analysis, Education & Health Resources of Arizona, Cottonwood, AZ 2002.
- Passwater, RA and Cranton, EM, Trace Minerals, Hair Analysis and Nutrition, Keats Publishing, 1983.
- Pfeiffer, CC, Mental and Elemental Nutrients, Keats Publishing, 1975.
- Pfeiffer, CC, Zinc and other Micronutrients, Keats Publishing, 1978.
- Seven, MJ (ed.), Metal Binding in Medicine, Philadelphia, Lippincott 1960; 321.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency, Toxic Trace Metals in Mammalian Hair and Nails, EPA-600 4.79-049, August 1979.
- Valkovic, V, Human Hair Vol. 1. Fundamentals and Methods for Measurement of Elements Composition, CRC Press, 1988.
- Valkovic, V, Human Hair, Vol II. Trace-Element Levels, CRC Press. 1988.
- Werbach, M, Nutritional Influences on Illness, Third Line Press, 1993 2nd Edition. (with Laboratory Methods For Nutritional Evaluation)
- Watts, DL, Trace Elements and Other Essential Nutrients, T.E.I., 1995.
- Albrecht, WA, The Albrecht Papers, Acres U.S.A., 1975.
- Andersen, BD, The Rhythms of Nature, Harmonic Spiral, 1st edition, 1999.
- Atkins, RC, The Atkins Health Revolution, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1988.
- Bernard, C, An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine, Collier Books, 1961.
- Braunwald, E et al, ed., Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 15th edition, McGraw-Hill, 2001.
- Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Mercury, and Zinc Concentrations in the Hair of Individuals Living in the United States. Interface. 1973.
- Clarkson TW, et al, Monitoring Of Toxic Metals, Plenum Publishing Co., NY, 1988.
- Cleave, TL The Saccharine Disease, Keats Publishing, 1975.
- Crook, WG, The Yeast Connection Handbook, Professional Books, 1999.
- Davies, IJT, The Clinical Significance of the Essential Biological Metals, M.B., London, 1921.
- Douglass, WC, The Milk of Human Kindness is Not Pasteurized, Copple House Books, 1985.
- Douglass, WC, Into the Light, Second Opinion Publishing, 1993.
- Gerson, M, A Cancer Therapy – Results of 50 Cases, 3rd edition, Totality Books, 1977.
- Gerson, C, Bishop, B, Healing The Gerson Way, Totality Books, 2007.
- Gutherie, HA, Introductory Nutrition, V. C. Mosby Co., St. Louis, 1975.
- Guyton, A, Textbook of Medical Physiology, W.B. Saunders Co., 1995.
- Hall, RH, Food For Naught, The Decline in Nutrition, Vintage Books, 1974.
- Harper, NA, Rodwell, VW, Myers, PA: Review of Physiological Chemistry, Lange Med. Publications, Los Altos, Ca, 94022, 1979.
- Hoffer, A, Walker, M, Orthomolecular Nutrition, Keats Publishing, 1978.
- Hubbard, LR, Clear Mind, Clear Body, Bridge Publications, 1990, 2002.
- Jensen, B, The Chemistry of Man, B. Jensen, 1983.
- Jensen, B, The Science and Practice of Iridology, B. Jensen, 1974.
- Jensen, B, You Can Master Disease, B. Jensen, 1952.
- Kelley, WD, One Answer to Cancer, 1980, 1997.
- Kervan, CL, Biological Transmutations, Beekman Publishers, 1980.
- Kirschmann, JD, Nutrition Almanac, McGraw-Hill , 1979.
- Koch, W, The Survival Factor in Neoplastic and Viral Diseases, 1961. (and all his other works)
- Mandell, M, Scanlow, LW, Dr. Mandell’s 5-day Allergy Relief System, Pocket Books, New York, 1979.
- Mertz.W, ed., Trace elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, 5th ed, Academic Press, New York, 1980.
- McVicker, M, Sauna Detoxification Therapy, McFarland & Company, 1997.
- Nickel, DJ, Nutritional consultant’s manual of quick fixes, Analyt. Res. Labs., 1992.
- Ott, JN, Health and Light, The Effects of Natural and Artificial Light on Man and Other Living Things, Pocket Books, 1976.
- Pauling, L, Vitamin C, The Common Cold and the Flu, W.H. Freeman and Co., 1976.
- Page, M, Degeneration-Regeneration, Nutritional Development, 1980.
- Pearson, D, Shaw, S, Life Extension, Warner Books, 1983.
- Prasad, AS, Trace Elements and Iron in Human Metabolism, Plenum Publishing, New York, 1978.
- Price, W, Nutrition and Physical Degeneration, Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation, 1945, 1979.
- Rapp, DJ, Is This Your Child’s World?, Bantam Books, 1996.
- Rapp, DJ, Is This Your Child? 1991.
- Rapp, DJ, Our Toxic World: A Wake Up Call, 2003.
- Rogers, S, Detoxify or Die, Sand Key Company, 2002.
- Ryan R, Terry C. Toxicology Desk Reference: The Toxic Exposure and Medical Monitoring Index, 3rd ed., Taylor & Francis; 1996.
- Sauberlich, HE et al., Laboratory Tests For The Assessment Of Nutritional Status, CRC Press, 1984.
- Schroeder, H, The Trace Elements and Man, Devin-Adair Company, 1975.
- Schroeder, H, The Poisons Around Us, Keats Publishing Inc., New Canaan, Connecticut, 06840, 1974.
- Schroeder, H., Pollution, Profits and Progress, Stephen Greene Press, VT, 1971., Also A Matter of Choice, the Big Water Fight and America Vanishing by H. Schroeder.
- Scogna, JR, The Promethian, LEP Publications, 1983.
- Seelig, MS, Magnesium Deficiency in the Pathogenesis of Disease, Plenum Publishing, New York, 1980.
- Selye, H, The Stress of Life, McGraw-Hill , 1956.
- Selye, H, Stress Without Distress, Signet Books, 1975.
- Schmidt, MA, Smith, LH and Sehnert, KW, Beyond Antibiotics, Healthier Options for Families, North Atlantic Books, 1993.
- Schutte, KH and Myers, JA, Metabolic Aspects of Health, Discovery Press, 1979.
- Segala, M, Disease Prevention and Treatment, Life Extension Foundation, 2000.
- Smith, E et al., Principles of Biochemistry, Vols. I and II, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill, 1978.
- Stryer, L, Biochemistry, 2nd edition, W.H. Freeman and Company, 1981.
- Sylver, N, The Holistic Handbook of Sauna Therapy, The Center For Frequency, NY 2004.
- Tsalev DL. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in Occupational and Environmental Health Practice. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 1995.
- Watson, G, Nutrition and Your Mind, Bantam books, 1972.
- Watson, G, Personality Strength and Psycho-Chemical Energy, Harper and Row, 1979.
- Williams, RJ, Nutrition Against Disease, Environmental Protection, Pitman Publishing, 1971.
Medical journals, articles and reports.
- Abraham, JL, Trace elements in hair, Lancet, 1982 Sep 4;2(8297):554–555.
- Abugassa I, Sarmani SB, Samat SB. Multi element analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the ko-standardization method. Appl Rad Isotopes. 1999; 50:989-94.
- Aharoni A, Tesler B, Paltieli Y, Tal JH, Dori Z, Sharf M. Hair chromium content of women with gestational diabetes compared with nondiabetic pregnant women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992; 55:104-7.
- Ahmed AF, Elmubarak AH. Lead and cadmium in human hair: a comparison among four countries. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1990 Jul; 45(1):139-48.
- Airey D. Total mercury concentrations in human hair from 13 countries in relation to fish consumption and location. Sci Tot Environ. 1983; 31:157-80.
- Airey, D, Mercury in human hair due to environment and diet: a review. Environ Health Persp., 1983;52:303-316.
- Al-Delaimy W et al. Nicotine in hair of bar and restaurant workers. N Z Med J. 2001 Mar 9;
- Allen, RB, Nutritional aspects of epilepsy, Int Clinical Nutrition Review, 1983;3(3), July, 1983.
- Amodor, M, et al., Hair zinc concentrations in diabetic children, Lancet, 1975;2(7945):1146
- Anderson RA et al. Designing a biological monitoring program to assess community exposure to chromium: conclusions of an expert panel. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1993; 40:555-83.
- Anderson, RA, Chromium as an essential nutrient for humans, Regul Tox Pharm., 1997;26:S35-S41.
- Anderson, RA, Kozlovsky, AS, Chromium intake, absorption and excretion of subjects consuming self-selected diets, Am J Cllin Nutr., 1985;41:1177-83.
- Anttila, J and Simell, O, Serum and Hair Zinc as Predictors of Clinical Symptoms in Acrodermatitis Enteropathica. J Inher Metab Dis., 1984;7:46-48.
- Ashmead, H, Tissue transportation of organic trace minerals, J Appl Nutr., 1970;22:1-2.
- Ashraf W, Jaffar M, Mohammad D. Age and sex dependence of selected trace metals in scalp hair of urban population of Pakistan. Sci Total Environ. 1994 Jul 18; 151(3):227-33.
- Ashraf W, Jaffar M, Mohammad D. Trace metal contamination study on scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1994 Oct; 53(4):516-23.
- Ashraf, MH, Fosmire, CJ, Effects of marginal zinc deficiency on subclinical lead toxicity in the rat neonate, Penn State U., Univ. Park, PA 16802. #4481.
- Assarlan, GS, Oberleas, D, Effect of washing procedures on trace element content of hair, Clin Chem., 1977;23(9):1771-1772.
- Atalla L, Silva CM, Lima FW. Activation analysis of arsenic in human hair – some observations on the problems of external contamination. Ann Acad Bras Cien. 1965; 37:432-41.
- Attar KM, Abdel-Aal MA, Debayle P. Distribution of trace elements in the lipid and nonlipid matter of hair. Clin Chem. 1990 Mar; 36(3):477-80.
- Aufreiter, S, Hancock, RG, Pigmentation and temporal effects on trace elements in hair, Biol Trace Elem Res., 1990;26-27:721-728.
- Bache CA, Lisk DJ, Scarlett JM, Carbone LG. Epidemiologic study of cadmium and lead in the hair of ceramists and dental personnel. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1991 Dec; 34(4):423-31.
- Bader M, Dietz MC, Ihrig A, Triebig G. Biomonitoring of manganese in blood, urine and axillary hair following low-dose exposure during the manufacture of dry cell batteries. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1999 Nov; 72(8):521-7.
- Baer, MT, Tissue zinc levels and zinc excretion during experimental zinc depletion in young men, Am J Clin Nutr., 1984;39:556-570.
- Barbosa AC, Silva SR, Dorea JG. Concentration of mercury in hair of indigenous mothers and infants from the Amazon basin. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1998 Jan; 34(1):100-5.
- Barrett, S., Hair analysis called unreliable, unscientific, JAMA, 1985;254(8):1041-1045.
- Bate LC. Adsorption and elution of trace elements on human hair. Int J Appl Rad Isot. 1966; 17:417-23.
- Batzevich VA. Hair trace element analysis in human ecology studies. Sci Total Environ. 1995 Mar 15; 164(2):89-98.
- Baumgartner WA, Hill VA, Blahd WH. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 1989; 34:1433-52.
- Baumslag, N, Trace metal content of maternal and neonate hair. Arch Environ Health, October 1974;29.
- Bayer, VW, Die bestimmung von magnesium in gewebeproben mittels AAS, Magnesiumbestimmung, Magnesium Bulletin 2/1983.
- Bencko V, Geist T, Arbetova D, Dharmadikari DM, Svandova E. Biological monitoring of environmental pollution and human exposure to some trace elements. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1986; 30(1):1-10.
- Bencko V, Symon K. Health aspects of burning coal with a high arsenic content. I. Arsenic in hair, urine, and blood in children residing in a polluted area. Environ Res. 1977; 13:378-85.
- Bencko V. Use of human hair as a biomarker in the assessment of exposure to pollutants in occupational and environmental settings. Toxicology. 1995 Jul 26; 101(1-2):29-39. Review.
- Berlin, M, Interaction between selenium and inorganic mercury, Environ Health Perspect., 1978; 25: 67–69.
- Bermejo-Barrera P, Moreda-Pineiro A, Romero-Barbeito T, Moreda-Pineiro J, Bermejo-Barrera A. Traces of cadmium in human scalp hair measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with the slurry sampling technique. Clin Chem. 1996 Aug; 42(8 Pt 1):1287-8.
- Bermejo-Barrera P, Muniz-Naveiro O, Moreda-Pineiro A, Bermejo-Barrera A. Experimental designs in the optimization of ultrasonic bath-acid leaching procedures for the determination of trace elements in human hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Foren Sci Intl. 2000; 107:105-20.
- Birke, G, Studies on humans exposed to methymercury through fish consumption, Arch Environ Health, 1972;25.
- Bland, J, Dietary calcium, posphorus, and their relationship to bone formation and parathyroid activity, J. John Bastry Coll. Nat. Med. 1979; 1: 3-7.
- Blaurock-Busch E, Busch, BW, Hair analysis not a valid test? Says who?, Dig Chiro Econ., Mar/April, 1994.
- Blaurock-Busch, E, Busch, BW, Jones, JCJ, Rasmussen, O, Commercial hair analysis, science or scam: A rebuttal, Townsend Letter, 1985;32:310.
- Boischio AAP, Cernichiari E. Longitudinal hair mercury concentration in riverside mothers along the Upper Madeira river (Brazil). Environ Res. 1998 May; 77(2):79-83.
- Bos AJ, van der Stap CC, Valkovic V, Vis RD, Verheul H. Incorporation routes of elements into human hair; implications for hair analysis used for monitoring. Sci Total Environ. 1985 Mar 15; 42(1-2):157-69.
- Bos, AJ, Measurements of trace element concentration profiles across the diameter of human hair with micro-pixe. 0018-9499/83/0400-1249 1983 IEEE.
- Bosque MA, Domingo JL, Llobet JM, Corbella J. Cadmium in hair of school children living in Tarragona Province, Spain. Relationship to age, sex, and environmental factors. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1991 Feb; 28(2):147-55.
- Botha-Anoun, E, Babyan, S and Harfoucche, JK, Intellectual development related to nutritional status, J Tropical Pediat., 1968;14:112-115.
- Brimhall, JW, Mineral analysis by hair, Dig Chiro Econ., 1976, 19(1):50-
- Buckley RA, Dreosoti IE. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984; 50:840-6.
- Burger, FJ, and Hodewind, ZA, Changes in trace elements in kwashiorkor. S AIr Med J., 1974;48:502.
- Burguera JL, Burguera M, Rondon CE, Rivas C, Burguera JA, Alarcon OM. Determination of lead in hair of exposed gas station workers and in unexposed adults by microwave-aided dissolution of samples and flow injection/atomic absorption spectrometry. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis. 1987 Sep; 1(1):21-6.
- Bustueva KA, Revich BA, Bezpalko LE. Cadmium in the environment of three Russian cities and in human hair and urine. Arch Environ Health. 1994 Jul-Aug; 49(4):284-8.
- Campbell, JD, Hair analysis: A diagnostic tool for measuring mineral status in humans, J Orthomol Psych, 1985;14(4):276-280.
- Capel, ID, Pinnock, MH, Dorrell, HM, Williams DC, Grant ECG.: Comparison of Concentrations of Some Trace, Bulk, and Toxic Metals in the Hair of Normal and Dyslexic Children, Clin. Chem. 1981; 27: 879-881.
- Carbone, P, et al., Hair zinc and dietary zinc intake during pregnancy and puerperium, J Obstet Gyn Reprod Biol., 1992; 47(2):103-8.
- Carvalho, F, Lead and cadmium concentrations in the hair of fishermen from the Subae River Basin, Brazil, Environ Res., 1984;33:300-306.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Blood and hair mercury levels in young children and women of childbearing age—United States, 1999. MMWR Weekly. 2001 Mar 2; 50(8):140-3. https://www.cdc.gov/
- Cernichiari E, Brewer R, Myers GJ, Marsh DO, Lapham LW, Cox C, Shamlaye CF, Berlin M, Davidson PW, Clarkson TW. Monitoring methylmercury during pregnancy: maternal hair predicts fetal brain exposure. Neurotoxicology. 1995 Winter; 16(4):705-10.
- Cernichiari E, Toribara TY, Liang L, Marsh DO, Berlin MW, Myers GJ, Cox C, Shamlaye CF, Choisy O, Davidson P, et al. The biological monitoring of mercury in the Seychelles study.
- Neurotoxicology. 1995 Winter; 16(4):613-28.
- Cernichiari, E et al, Did Andrew Jackson Have Mercury Poisoning?, JAMA, 2000; 283(2):200-201.
- Chappuis P, deVernejoul M, Paolaggi F, Rousselet F. Relationship between hair, serum and bone aluminum in hemodialyzed patients. Clin Chim Act. 1989; 179:271-8.
- Chatergee, DD et al, Arsenic in ground water in six districts of West Bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Arsenic concentration in drinking water, hair, nails, urine, skin-scale and liver tissue of affected people. Analyst, 1995;Mar;120(3):917-24.
- Chatt A, Holzbecher J, Katz SA. Metabolic deposition of selenium and cadmium into the hair and other tissues of the guinea pig. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1990 Jul-Dec; 26-27:513-9.
- Chattopadhyay PK, Joshi HC, Samaddar KR. Hair cadmium level of smoker and non-smoker human volunteers in and around Calcutta City. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1990 Aug; 45(2):177-80.
- Chattopadhyay, A, Scalp hair as a monitor of community exposure to lead, Arch Environ Health, 1977;32(5):226-36.
- Chen, W, Biochemical and morphological studies of monkeys chronically exposed to methylmercury. J Toxicol Environ Health, 1983;12:407-416.
- Chen, X, Relation of selenium deficiency to the occurrence of Keshan disease. Keshan Disease Research Group of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Bejing.
- Cheng, YD, et al, Study of correlation of selenium content in human hair and internal organs by INAA. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1990;26-27(1).
- Chetty, KN, Interactions of Cobalt and Iron in Chicks, Ph. D. Thesis, North Carolina State University, 1972.
- Chittleborough G, Steel BJ. Is human hair a dosimeter for endogenous zinc and other trace elements? Sci Total Environ. 1980; 15:25-35.
- Chittleborough, GA, A chemist’s view of the analysis of human hair for trace elements, Sci Total Environ., 1980;14:53-75.
- Chlopicka J, Zachwieja Z, Zagrodzki P, Frydrych J, Slota P, Krosniak M. Lead and cadmium in the hair and blood of children from a highly industrial area in Poland. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998 Jun; 62(3):229-34.
- Chlopicka J, Zagrodzki P, Zachwieja Z, Krosniak M, Folta M. Use of pattern recognition methods in the interpretation of heavy metal (lead and cadmium) in children’s scalp hair. Analyst. 1995 Mar; 120(3):943-5.
- Chowdhury UK, Biswas BK, Chowdhury TR, Samanta G, Mandal BK, Basu GC, Chanda CR, Lodh D, Saha KC, Mukherjee SK, Roy S, Kabir S, Quamruzzaman Q, Chakraborti D. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Environ Health Perspect. 2000; 108:393-7.
- Clarke, AN, Preparation of hair for lead analysis, Arch Environ Health, 1974;28, May 1974.
- Clarkson TW. The role of biomarkers in reproductive and developmental toxicology. Environ Health Perspect. 1987 Oct; 74:103-7.
- Clarkson TW. The toxicology of mercury. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 1997; 34(4):369-403.
- Clarkson, TW, Mercury, Ann Rev Pub Health, 1983;4:375-80.
- Clarkson, TW, Metal concentration in blood, urine, hair and other tissues as indicators of metal accumulation in the body, Dept. of Radiation Biology and Biophysics, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY.
- Cleg, MS et al, Influence of ashing techniques on the analysis of trace elements in animal tissue Biological Trace Element Research 1981; 3:107-115.
- Collipp, PJ, Manganese in infant formulas and learning disability, Ann Nutr Metab., 1983;27:448-492.
- Contiera E, Folin M. Trace elements nutritional status. Use of hair as a diagnostic tool. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1994; 40:151-60.
- Cordova EJ, Crinella FM, Ericosn JE. High hair manganese in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Unpublished study. Address: FM Crinella, UC Irvine, Child Development Center, 19722 MacArthur Blvd., Irvine, CA 92612.
- Cornelis R, Speecke A. Neutron activation analysis of human hair collected at regular intervals for 25 years. J Forensic Sci Soc. 1971; 11(1):29-46.
- Corridan, JP, Head hair samples as indicators of environmental pollution, Environ Res. 1974;8:12-16.
- Cote, M, et al, Hair chromium concentration and arteriosclerotic heart disease, in Chromium in Nutrition and Metabolism. Shapcott, D and Hubert, J, ed. Elservier Press. 1979.
- Cotton, D, et al, Magnesium content of hair in alopecia areata atopica, Dermatologica, 1976;152(1):60-2.
- Cowgill, UM, The distribution of selenium and cancer mortality in the continental United States, Biol Trace Elem Res, 1983;5, 345-361.
- Cox C, Clarkson TW, Marsh DO, Amin-Zaki L, Tikriti S, Myers GG. Dose-response analysis of infants prenatally exposed to methyl mercury: an application of a single compartment model to single-strand hair analysis. Environ Res. 1989 Aug; 49(2):318-32.
- Cranton, EM, Critique of the American Medical Association’s Published Position on Hair Analysis, J Holistic Med, 1986;8 (1).
- Cravioto, J and DeLicardie, ER, Mental performance in school age children. Findings after recovery from early severe malnutrition, Am J Diseases Child., 1970;120:404-410.
- Creason, JP et al, Trace elements in hair as related to exposure in metropolitan New York, Clin Chem., 1975;21: 603-612.
- Cross, J, Leslie, A, Smith, H, Copper levels in human tissue, J Forens Sci Soc., 1976;16:311.
- Curry AS, Pounds CA. Arsenic in hair. J For Sci Soc. 1977; 17:37-44.
- D’Onofrio, C and Singer, R, Sugary images in school textbooks, U California Berkeley, School of Public Health, as reported by Spletter, M. in Med Tirbune, 1985;26(6):1-9.
- Dang, HS and Jaiswal, DD, Trace element changes in hair during pregnancy: A preliminary study, Sci Total Environ., 1983;31:187-192.
- Davies S, Howard JM, Hunnisett A, Howard M. Age-related decreases in chromium levels in 51,665 hair, sweat, and serum samples from 40,872 patients-implications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Metabolism. 1997; 46:469-73.
- Davies, TS, Hair analysis and selenium shampoos, Lancet, 1982, Oct. 23. (letter)
- De Peyster A, Silvers JA. Arsenic levels in hair of workers in a semiconductor fabrication facility. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1995 Apr; 56(4):377-83.
- DeAntonio SM, Katz SA, Scheiner DM, Wood JD. Anatomically-related variations in trace-metal concentrations in hair. Clin Chem. 1982; 28:2411-3.
- Deening SB, Wever CW. Hair analysis of trace minerals in human subjects as influenced by age, sex, and contraceptive drug. Am J Clin Nutr. 1978; 31:1175-80.
- Deflora, S, Wetterhahn, RF, Mechanisms of chromium metabolism and genotoxicity, Life Chem Reports, 1989;7:169-244.
- DeGroot, HJ, Determination by flameless atomic absorption of aluminum in serum and hair for toxicological monitoring of patients on chronic intermittent haemodialysis, Pharmaceutisch Weekblad Scientific Edition, 1984;6.
- Delves HT. Assessment of trace element status. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1985; 14:725-60.
- Dine, MS, What is the best test for iron deficiency? Letter to Editor, Pediatrics, 1983;72(6).
- DiPietro ES, Phillips DL, Paschal DC, Neese JW. Determination of trace elements in human hair. Reference intervals for 28 elements in nonoccupationally exposed adults in the US and effects of hair treatments. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1989 Oct; 22(1):83-100.
- Dogbreveru, U et al., Zinc Levels of Plasma, Erythrocyte, Hair and Urine in Homozygote Beta-Thalassemia, Acta Haematologica, 1979;62(1).
- Doi, R et al, A study of the sources of external metal contamination of hair, Sci Total Environ,1988;77:153-161.
- Donaldson, RM, Jr., Barreras, RF, Intestinal absorption of trace quantites of chromium, J Lab Clin Med, 1966;68:484-493.
- Donma, M, et al, Hair zinc and copper concentrations and zinc/copper ratios in pediatric malignancies and healthy children from southeastern Turkey, Biol Trace Elem Res., 1993;36:51-63.
- Dorea, JG, The influence of hair color on the concentration of zinc and copper in boys hair, May 1983, American Institute of Nutrition.
- Druyan ME, Bass D, Puchyr R, Urek K, Quig DW. Determination of reference ranges for elements in human scalp hair. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998; 62(3):183-97.
- Du Y, Mangelson NF, Rees LB, Matheny RT. PIXE elemental analysis of South American mummy hair. Nucl Instru Meth Phys Res B. 1996.
- Durlach, J, Clinical aspects of chronic magnesium deficiency, in Magnesium in Health And Disease, Spectrum Publishing Company, 1980, pp. 884-909.
- Eck P., A new approach to hair analysis, (seminar), De Paul University, Chicago, IL May 22-23, 1982.
- Eck P., and Watts D., Nutritional factors of dental health, Anal Res Labs, 1983.
- Eck P., Introduction to copper toxicity, Anal Res Labs.
- Eck P., Watts, DL, Hair analysis, Amer Chiro., 1983;Mar/Apr.
- Ellis KJ, Yasumura S, Cohn SH. Hair cadmium content: is it biological indicator of the body burden of cadmium for the occupationally exposed worker? Am J Ind Med. 1981; 2:323-30.
- Eltayeb MA, Van Grieken RE. Iron, copper, zinc and lead in hair from Sudanese populations of different age groups. Sci Total Environ. 1990 Jun; 95:157-65.
- Eminians, J, Reinhold, JG, Kfoury, GA et al., Zinc nutrition of children in Fare Province of Iran, Am J Clin Nutr.,1967;20:734.
- Epstein, O, Boss, AMB., Lyon, T, Sherlock, S, Hair Copper in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1980; 33: 965-967.
- Esteban E, Rubin CH, Jones RL, Noonan G. Hair and blood as substrates for screening children for lead poisoning. Arch Environ Health. 1999 Nov-Dec; 54(6):436-40.
- Everson, GJ, Schraeder, RE, Abnormal glucose tolerance in manganese-deficient guinea pigs, J Nutr., 1968;94: 89-94.
- Fan AM, Chang LW. Human exposure and biological monitoring of methylmercury and selenium. In: Dillon HK, Ho MH, ed. Biological Monitoring of Exposure to Chemicals: Metals. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 1991:223-41.
- Feng Q, Suzuki Y, Hisashige A. Trace element contents in hair of residents from Harbin (China), Medan (Indonesia), and Tokushima (Japan). Biol Trace Elem Res. 1997 Winter; 59(1-3):75-86.
- Ferguson JE, Holzbecher J, Ryan DE. The sorption of copper [II], manganese [II], zinc [II], and arsenic [III] into human hair and their desorption. Sci Tot Environ. 1983; 26:121-35.
- Fernandez-Britto, JE et al, Coronary atherosclerosis and chemical trace elements in the hair. A canonical correlation study of autopsy subjects, using and atherometric system and the X-ray flurorescence analysis, Zentralbl Pathol. 1993;139.
- Fishbein, D, Thatcher, R, Lester, M and Cantor, DS, Nutrition, trace elements and EEG in predicting behavior. App. Neuroscience Res. Institute, U. of Maryland.
- Fishbein, D., Refined carbohydrate consumption and maladaptive behaviors: an experiment, Int J biosocial Res., 1981;2:21-24.
- Fletcher, DM, Hair analysis: Proven and problematic applications, Postgrad Med., 1982;72:79-88.
- Folin M, Contiero E, Vaselli GM. Trace element determination in humans. The use of blood and hair. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1991; 31:147-58.
- Foo SC, Khoo NY, Heng A, Chua LH, Chia SE, Ong CN, Ngim CH, Jeyaratnam J. Metals in hair as biological indices for exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Hlth. 1993; 65:S83-S86.
- Frery N, Girard F, Moreau T, Blot P, Sahuquillo J, Hajem S, Orssaud G, Huel G. Validity of hair cadmium in detecting chronic cadmium exposure in general populations. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1993 May; 50(5):736-43.
- Furman, AF, Hair analysis –the test that helps balance body chemistry, reprint by Micro-Trace Minerals Laboratory, 1980.
- Gaillard Y, Pepin G. Testing hair for pharmaceuticals. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1999; 733(1-2):231-46.
- Gallagher, M et al, Selenium levels in new growth hair and in whole blood during ingestion of a selenium supplement for 6 weeks. Nutr. Res. 1984;4:577-82.
- Gammelgaard, B, et al, Nickel in nails, hair and plasma from nickel-hypersensitive women, Acta Derm Venereol, 1990;70(5):417-20.
- Gardner, LI, Potassium loss and adrenal exhaustion, J Lab Clin Med., 1950;35:592.
- Gebel TW, Suchenwirth RHR, Bolten C et al. Human biomonitoring of arsenic and antimony in case of an elevated geogenic exposure. Environ Health Persp. 1998; 106:33-9.
- Gerhardsson L, Skerfving S. Concepts on biological markers and biomonitoring for metal toxicity. In: Change LW, ed. Toxicology of Metals. New York, NY: Lewis Publishers; 1966:81-107.
- Gibson RS, Skeaff M, Williams S. Interrelationship of indices of body composition and zinc status in 11-yr-old New Zealand children. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2000; 75:65-77.
- Gill, US et al., Results of Multiyear International Inter-laboratory Comparison Program for Mercury in Human Hair, J Arch of Environ Contam Toxic., 2002;43(4) November, 2002.
- Gingivitis and periodontal disease, Research Abstracts regarding folic acid, ascorbic acid and zinc, 1985.
- Giovanoli-Jakubczak, T et al, Measurement of mercury in human hair, Arch Environ Health, 1974.
- Golow AA, Kwaansa-Ansah EE. Comparison of lead and zinc levels in the hair of pupils from four towns in the Kumasi municipal area of Ghana. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1994 Sep; 53(3):325-31.
- Gordon, G Sex and age related differences in trace element concentrations in hair, Sci Tot Environ, 1985;42:133-147.
- Gordus, A, Factors affecting the trace metal content of human hair”, J. Radioanal Chem., 1973;15: 229-243.
- Grandjean P, Budtz-Jorgensen E, White RF, Jorgensen PJ, Weihe P, Debes F, Keiding N. Methylmercury exposure biomarkers as indicators of neurotoxicity in children aged 7 years. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Aug 1; 150(3):301-5.
- Grandjean P. Lead poisoning: hair analysis shows the calendar of events. Hum Toxicol. 1984 Jun; 3(3):223-8.
- Greenwood MR, Dhahir P, Clarkson TW, Farant JP, Chatrand A, Khayat A. J Analyt Toxicol. 1977; 1:265.
- Guidotti TL, Audette RJ, Martin CJ. Interpretation of the trace metal analysis profile for patients occupationally exposed to metals. Occup Med (Lond). 1997 Nov; 47(8):497-503.
- Hac E, Krechniak J. Lead levels in bone and hair of rats treated with lead acetate. Biol Trace Elem Res 1996; 52:293-301.
- Hac E, Krechniak J. Mercury concentrations in hair exposed in vitro to mercury vapor. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1993 Nov-Dec; 39(2-3):109-15.
- Hac E, Krzyzanowski M, Krechniak J. Cadmium content in human kidney and hair in the Gdansk region. Sci Total Environ. 1998 Dec 11; 224(1-3):81-5.
- Hagedom-Gotz, H et al., On Nickel Contents in Urine and Hair in a Case of Exposure to Nickel Carbonyl. Arch. Tox. 1977.
- Hambidge KM. Hair analysis: proven and problematic applications. Postgraduate Medicine, 1982; 72(5):79-81, 84, 87-8.
- Hambidge, KM, and Droegemueller, W., Changes in plasma and hair concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium, and manganese during pregnancy, Obstet and Gynecol., 1974;44: 686.
- Hambidge, KM, Hair chromium concentration: effects of sample washing and external environment, Am J Clin Nutr., 1972;25: 384-389.
- Hambridge, KM, Baum, J.D., Hair Chromium Concentration of Human Newborn and Changes During Infancy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1972.
- Hambridge, KM, et al., Concentration of Chromium in the Hair of Normal Children and Children with Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes. 1968.
- Hambridge, KM, et al., Low levels of Zinc in Hair, Anorexia, Poor Growth, and Hypogeusia in Children, Peadiatr. Res. 1972.
- Hammer, DI, et. al., Hair Trace Element Levels and Environmental Exposure, Am. J. Epid. 1971.
- Hammer, DI, Trace metals in hair are easier to study, JAMA, 1971;215(3):384.
- Harada M et al. Monitoring of mercury pollution in Tanzania: relation between head hair mercury and health. Sci Total Environ. 1999 Mar 9; 227(2-3):249-56.
- Haraguchi H, Fujimori E, Inagaki K. Trace element analysis of biological samples by analytical atomic spectroscopy. In: Armstrong D, ed. Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol 108. Towata, NJ: Humana Press; 1998:389-411.
- Harkey, MR, Anatomy and physiology of hair, Forensic Sci Int., 1993;63(1-3):9-18.
- Harrington, JM, Middaugh JP, Morse DL et al. A survey of a population exposed to high concentrations of arsenic in well water in Fairbanks, Alaska. Am J Epid. 1978; 108(5):377-85.
- Harrison, W, Yarachek, JP, and Benson, CA, The determination of trace elements in human hair by atomic absorption spectroscopy, Clin Chim Acta 1969;23: 83).
- Hartman, RH, Matrone, G, Wise, GH, Effect of High Dietary Manganese on Hemoglobin Formation, J. Nutr. 1955;57:429.
- Hartwell TD, Handy RW, Harris BS et al. Heavy metal exposure in populations living around zinc and copper smelters. Arch Environ Health. 1983; 38(5):284-95.
- Hauser G, Vienna A, Wolfsperger M, Goessler W. Milk consumption, smoking and lead concentration in human hair. Coll Antropol. 1999 Dec; 23(2):433-6.
- Haxnbidge, KM, Hambidge, C, Jacobs, M, and Baum, JD, Low levels of zinc in hair, anorexia, poor growth and hypogeusia in children. Pediat Res.,1972;6:868.
- Hecker, LH, “Heavy Metal Levels in Acculturated and Unacculturated Populations”. Arch. Environ. Health, Vol. 29, Oct. 1974.
- Heeley, AF, and Watson, D, Cystic Fibrosis, Its Biochemical Detection. Clin. Chem. 1983;29(12):2011-2018.
- Held, NA, Zinc Status of Women: Laboratory Assessment and Related Dietary Factors, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. #4484.
- Henke G, Nucci A, Queiroz LS: Detection of repeated arsenical poisoning by neutron activation analysis of foot nail segments. Arch Toxicol. 1982; 50:125-31.
- Herber, RF, Trace Element Levels in Hair of Eight-Year-Old Children, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 1983;53:127-137.
- Hewitt DJ, Millner GC, Nye AC et al. Investigation of arsenic exposure from soil at a Superfund site. Environ Research. 1995; 68:73-81.
- Hickok, G, An update on the fight for hair analysis, Townsend Letter, 1985;32:310.
- Hilderbrand, DC, and White, DH, Trace element analysis in hair: An evaluation, Clin Chem., 1974;20:148.
- Hill, CH, Matrone, H, Chemical Parameters in the Study of Invivo and Invitro Interactions of Transition Elements, Fe. Proc-, Fed. Amer. Soc. Biol. 1970; 29: 1474-1481.
- Hindmarsh JT, Dekerkhove D, Grime G, Powell J. Hair arsenic as an index of toxicity. Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects, July 12-15, 1998, San Diego, CA. 1999; 1st ed:41-49.
- Hine, RJ, Zinc and copper nutriture of institutionalized mentally retarded adults before and after transfer to a group home. Nutr Res, 1984;4:189-200.
- Hixon, JR, New hope for hyperactive children, New York Times Magazine, Aug. 24, 1980, pp. 68-74.
- Hoffmann K, Becker K, Friedrich C, Helm D, Krause C, Seifert B. The German Environmental Survey 1990/1992 (GerES II): cadmium in blood, urine and hair of adults and children. J Exp Anal Environ Epi. 2000 Mar-Apr; 10(2):126-35.
- Holde et al. Quantitation of cocaine in human hair: the effect of centrifugation of hair digests. J Anal Toxicol. 1998 Oct; 22(6):414-7.
- Holzbecher, J, and Ryan, JE, Some observations on the interpretation of hair analysis data, Clin Biochem., 1982;15 (2):80-82.
- Hopps HC. The biological bases for using hair and nail for analysis of trace elements. Sci Total Environ. 1977; 7:71-89.
- Horvat M. Current status and future needs for biological and environmental reference materials certified for methylmercury compounds. Chemosphere. 1999; 39:1167-79.
- Houtman, JPW, de Bruin M, de Goeij JIM: Arsenic levels of human hair as an indicator for environmental exposure. In: Nuclear Activation Techniques in the Life Sciences. Vienna, IAEA, 1978; 599-614.
- Howe, M, Selenium in the Blood of South Dakotans, Arch Environ Health, 1979 Nov-Dec;34(6):444-8.
- Huang, B, Lin, S, Chen, S et al, Hair chromium levels in patients with vascular diseases, Biol Trace Elem Res., 1991;29:133-137.
- Hubbard D et al. Society of Forensic Toxicologists meeting, Snowbird, UT. 2000.
- Huel G, Everson RB, Menger I. Increased hair cadmium in newborns of women occupationally exposed to heavy metals. Environ Res. 1984 Oct; 35(1):115-21.
- Huel, G, Cadmium and lead content of maternal and newborn hair: Relationship to parity, birth weight and hypertension, Arch Environ Health, 1981;36, #5, Sept/Oct.
- Hwang SG, Chang JM, Lee SC, Tsai JH, Lai YH. Short- and long-term uses of calcium acetate do not change hair and serum zinc concentrations in hemodialysis patients. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1999; 59:83-8.
- Ikeda, T, Hair copper and zinc concentrations in handicapped children treated with anticonvulsants. Dev Pharmacol Ther., 1983;6: 381-387.
- Imaes, D., Pate, B.: Spatial Distribution of Copper in Individual Human Hairs, J. Forsensic Sci. 1976, 21.- 127-149.
- Iyengar GV. Reference values for elemental concentrations in some human samples of clinical interest: a preliminary evaluation. Sci Total Environ. 1984; 38:125-31.
- Iyengar V, Woittiez J. Trace elements in human clinical specimens: evaluation of literature data to identify reference values. Clin Chem. 1988; 34:474-81.
- Iyengar, V, Reference values for elemental concentrations in some human samples of clinical interest, Total Environ, 1984;38:125-131.
- Jacob, M, Effect of Guar Gum on Copper Absorption and Tissue Copper and Cholesterol. (SPON: C.F. Tam). California State Univ., Long Beach, CA 90840. #4479.
- Jacobs RM. Techniques employed for the assessment of metals in biological systems. In: Change LW, ed. Toxicology of Metals. New York, NW: Lewis Publishers; 1996:81-107.
- Jacob, RD, Klevay, LM, Logan, GM, Hair Metal as an Index of Hepatic Metal in Rats: Copper and Zinc, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1978; 31: 477-480.
- Jervis RE, Present status of activation analysis applications in criminalistics. Isot Rad Tech. 1968; 6(1):57-70.
- John, W, Relationship Between Trace Element Concentrations in Human Blood and Atmospheric Aerosol, Sci Tot Environ, 1983;26:21-32.
- Kalman DA, Hughes J, van Belle G, Burbacher T, Bolgiano D, Coble KL, Mottet NK, and Polissar L. Distribution of urinary arsenic species for individuals living in an arsenic-contaminated community. Environ Health Perspect. 1990; 89:145-51.
- Katz SA, Katz RB. Use of hair analysis for evaluating mercury intoxication of the human body: a review. J Appl Toxicol. 1992 Apr; 12(2):79-84. Review.
- Katz, SA, The use of hair as a biopsy material for trace elements in the body, Amer Lab.,1979;Feb:44-52.
- Kazemi-Bajestania, SMR, Serum copper and zinc concentrations are lower in Iranian patients with angiographically defined coronary artery disease than in subjects with a normal angiogram, J Trace Elem Med Biol, 2007;21(1):22-28.
- Keister, ME, Relation of mid-morning feeding to behavior of nursery school children, J Am Dietetic Assn.,1950;26:25-29.
- Kerger, BD et al, Refined exposure assessment for ingestion of tapwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium: consideration of exogenous and endogenous reducing agents, J Expos Anal and Environ Epid, 1996;6(2):163-179.
- Keyzer, JJ, Zinc Absorption After Oral Administration of Zinc Sulfate. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad Scientific Ed., Vol. 5 (1983).
- Kidwell DA, Lee EH, DeLauder SF. Evidence for bias in hair testing and procedures to correct bias. Forensic Sci Int. 2000; 107(1-3):39-61.
- Kieselstein, M, Tamari, G, Ben Galim, E, and Kisliuk, A, Chromium in hair and carbohydrate metabolism in geriatric patients. J Israeli Med Assoc., 1984;CVII(1-2):1.
- Kirschmann G. J Nutrition Almanac, 4th ed. New York: McGraw Hill. 1996.
- Kist AA, Zhuk LI, Danilova EA, Mikholskaya IN. Mapping of ecologically unfavorable territories based on human hair composition. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998 Summer; 64(1-3):1-12.
- Klevay LM, Bistrian BR, Fleming CR, Neumann CG. Hair analysis in clinical and experimental medicine. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987 Aug; 46(2):233-6. Review.
- Klevay, LM, Hair as a Biopsy Material: 11 Assessment of Copper Nutritive, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 1970; 23:1194-1202.
- Klevay, LM, Hair as a Biopsy Material, Arch. Intern. Med., 1978;138:1127-1128.
- Klevay, LM, Hair as a biopsy material: Assessment of zinc nutriture, Am J Clin Nutr., 1970;23:284.
- Klevay, LM, Interactions of copper and zinc in cardiovascular disease, Ann NY Acad Sci, 2006;355:140 – 151.
- Klok, A, Trace Element Analysis in Human Hair By ICP-ES. Pharmceutisch Weekblad Scientific Edition, Vol. 5, 1983.
- Kollmer WE. Cadmium in induced hair of the rat and its relation to the level in the diet and in the major organs during long-term exposure to cadmium in the subtoxic and toxic range. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis. 1991 Sep; 5(3):165-71.
- Koons RD, Peters CA. Axial distribution of arsenic in individual human hairs by solid sampling graphite furnace AAS. J Anal Toxicol. 1994; 18:36-40.
- Kopito, L, et al., Chronic Plumbism in Children: Diagnosed by Hair Analysis. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1968.
- Kopito, L, et al., Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium in Hair from Neonates with Cystic Fibrosis and in Amniotic Fluid from Mothers of such Children, Pediatrics. 1972.
- Kopito, L, Byers, RK, Schwachman H, Lead in Hair of Children with Chronic Lead Poisoning, New Eng. J. Med.1967,276:949-953.
- Koren G. Measurement of drugs in neonatal hair; a window to fetal exposure. Forensic Sci Int. 1995 Jan 5; 70(1-3):77-82. Review.
- Kostiel, K, “Cadmium” in Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, 5th ed, Mertz, W., ed, Academic Press, NY, 1980.
- Krechniak J. Mercury concentrations in hair exposed in vitro to mercury vapor. Bio Tr Elem Res. 1993; 39:109-15.
- Kuangfei, L et al., Metallic elements in hair as a biomarker of human exposure to environmental pollution: A preliminary investigation in Hubei Province, Crit Review Plant Sci., 1999;18(3):1417-428.
- Kupsinel, R, The criminal mineral: unusual case history of manganese poisoning, J Int Acad of Prev Med., 1976;2(4).
- Kurttio P, Komulainen H, Hakala E, Kahelin H, Pekkanen J. Urinary excretion of arsenic species after exposure to arsenic present in drinking water. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1998; 34:297-305.
- Kvicala J, Vaclav J. INAA of serum zinc of inhabitants in five regions of the Czech Republic. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1999; 71-72:21-30.
- Kyle JH, Ghani N. Methylmercury in human hair: a study of a Papua New Guinean population exposed to methylmercury through fish consumption. Arch Environ Health. 1982 Sep-Oct; 37(5):266-71.
- Laker, M, On determining trace element levels in man: The uses of blood and hair. The Lancet, 1982, July 31, 260-262.
- Lamand M, Faviert A, Pineau A. La détermination des oligoéléments dans les poils et dans les cheveux: intérêt et limites. Annales de Biologie Clinique. 1990; 48:433-42.
- Lane, BC, Common Foods That Appear to Contribute to Accommodative Weakness, Elevation of Intraocular Pressure and Development of Myopia. 4th International Conference on Myopia, October, 1982.
- Lane, BC, Mercury in seafood may cause cataracts, Medical World News, 1982, December 20.
- Lane, BC, Myopia Prevention and Reversal: New Data Confirms the Interaction of Accommodative Stress and Deficit-Inducing Nutrition, J of Int’l Acad Prev Med., 1982;7(3), November, 1982.
- Lane, BC, Seafood as a new risk factor in cataract and glutathione peroxidase deficiency, Vision Care Section American Public Health Assn. “Vision and Aging”, Session #1082, Montreal, Canada.
- Lane,BC, Folate, Ascorbate, Calcium, Chromium and Vanadium in Myopia Prevention and Reversal, Metab Pediat Syst Opthamol., 1982;6(2):1-9-150.
- Larrson B. Interaction between chemicals and melanin. Pigment Cell Res. 1993; 6:127-33.
- LeBlanc A, Dumas P, Lefebvre L. Trace element content of commercial shampoos: impact on trace elements in hair. Sci Tot Environ. 1999; 229:121-4.
- Lee WC, Lee MJ. Mercury concentrations in scalp hair as an environmental contamination index from foods in Korea. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1999 Dec; 41(6):373-5.
- Lekouch N, Sedki A, Bouhouch S, Nejmeddine A, Pineau A, Pihan JC. Trace elements in children’s hair, as related exposure in wastewater spreading field of Marrakesh (Morocco). Sci Total Environ. 1999 Dec 15; 243-244:323-8.
- Leroy, R, Effect of washing on trace element content of human hair, J Ortho Med., 1986;1(2).
- Leslie ACD, Smith H: Napoleon Bonaparte’s exposure to arsenic during 1816. Arch Toxicol. 1978; 41:163-7.
- Lester, M, Horst, R, and Thatcher, RW, Protective effects of calcium and zinc against lead and cadmium toxicity in children, Nutr Behavior, 1986;3:145-161.
- Lester, ML, Thatcher, RW and Monroe-Lord, L, Refined carbohydrate intake, hair cadmium levels and cognitive functioning in children, J Nutr Behav., 1982;1:3-13.
- Lia, YF et al, Mercury in human hair and blood samples from people living in Wanshan mercury mine area, Guizhou, China: An XAS study, J Inorg Biochem, 2008;102(3):500-506.
- Lin T, Huang Y. Arsenic species in drinking water, hair, fingernails, and urine of patients with blackfoot disease. J Tox Environ Hlth. 1998; 53:85-93.
- Lind B, Bigras L, Cernichiari E, Clarkson TW, Friberg L, Hellman M, Kennedy P, Kirkbride J, Kjellstrom T, Olin B. Quality control of analyses of mercury in hair. Fresenius Z Anal Chem. 1988; 332:620-2.
- Lodenius, M, Environmental mercury contamination around a chlor-alkali plant, Bull Environ Contam Toxicol,1984;32:439-444.
- Macdonald, I, Warren, PJ, The copper content of the liver and hair of African children with Kwashiorkor, Brit. J. Nutr. 1961; 15:593-596.
- Madeiros, DM, The association of selected hair mineral levels and anthropometric factors to blood pressure in a normotensive adult population. Nutr Arch., 1985;1:67-73. 114(1127):80-3.
Maes D, Pate BD. The absorption of arsenic into single human head hairs. J For Sci. 1977; 22:89-99.
- Magos L, Berg GG. Selenium. In: Clarkson TW, Friberg L, Nordberg GF, Sager PR, eds. Biological Monitoring of Toxic Metals. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1988:383-405.
- Mahaffrey, KR, Rader, JI, Metabolic Interactions: Lead, Calcium, and Iron, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1980; 355: 285-297.
- Mahaffey, KR, Methymercury, Public Health Reports, 1999;114:397-420.
- Mahaffrey, KR, Nutritional factors in lead poisoning, Nut Reviews, 1981;31(10).
- Maksimovic ZJ, Djujic I, Jovic V, Rsumovic M. Selenium deficiency in Yugoslavia. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1992; 33:187-96.
- Malter, RF, Copper toxicity: Psychological implications for children, adolescents, and adults, Malter Institute for Neurological Development, Illinois, April, 1984.
- Malter, RF, Energy, stress, and burnout: a new perspective on addiction (seminar), Malter Inst for Nat Development, Inc., Schaumburg, Il, 1987.
- Malter, RF, Implications of a bio-nutritional approach to the diagnosis, treatment and cost of learning disorders, Somatics, 1984-1985;Autumn-Winter38-43.
- Malter, RF, Psychological implications of the new nutritional science, 1984.
- Malter, RF, Some problems with measurement and statistics applied to hair analysis, Northwest Suburban Child Development Clinic, Inc., Arlington Heights, Il., 1988.
- Man, CK, et al, Hair analysis of spastic children in Hong Kong, Sci Tot Environ., 1996;191.
- Mandal BK, Chowdhury TR, Samanta G, Mukherjee DP, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Chakroborti D. Impact of safe water for drinking and cooking on five arsenic-affected families for 2 years in West Bengal, India. Sci Tot Environ. 1998; 218:185-201.
- Manson P, Zlotkin S. Hair analysis—a critical review. Can Med Assoc J. 1985 Aug 1; 133:186-8. Editorial.
- Mariani, A, Mercury levels in food and its intake in high-risk population groups, Bibithca Nutr Dieta, 29:32-38.
- Marlow, M, Increased lead burdens and trace-mineral status in mentally retarded children, J Special Educ., 1982;16(1).
- Marlowe M, Medeiros DM, Errera J, Medeiros LC. Hair minerals and diet of Prader-Willi Syndrome youth. J Autism Develop Disorders., 1987;17:365-374.
- Marlowe, M, et al, Lead and mercury levels in emotionally disturbed children, J Orthomol Psych., 1983;12(4)260267.
- Marlowe, M, Hair mineral content as a predictor of mental retardation, J Orthomol Psych., 1983;12(1):26-33.
- Marriott BM, Smith JC Jr, Jacobs RM, Jones AO, Altman JD. Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc content of hair from two populations of rhesus monkeys. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1996 Summer; 53(1-3):167-83.
- Marsh DO, Clarkson TW, Cox C, Myers GJ, Amin-Zaki L, Al-Tikriti S. Fetal methylmercury poisoning. Relationship between concentration in single strands of maternal hair and child effects. Arch Neurol. 1987 Oct; 44(10):1017-22.
- Marsh DO, Myers GJ, Clarkson TW. Dose-response relationship for human fetal exposure to methylmercury. Clin Toxicol. 1981; 18:1311-8.
- Matsubara J, Machida K. Significance of elemental analysis of hair as a means of detecting environmental pollution. Environ Res. 1985 Dec; 38(2):225-38.
- Maugh, TH, Hair: A diagnostic tool to complement blood serum and urine, Science, 1978;202:1271-1373.
- McBean, LD, Mahloudji, M, Reinhold, JG, and Halsted, JA, Correlation of zinc concentrations in human plasma and hair, Am J Clin Nutr., 1971;24:506.
- McClean S, O’Kane E, Coulter D, McLean S, Smyth WF. Capillary electrophoretic determination of trace metals in hair samples and its comparison with high performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption techniques. Electrophoresis. 1998; 19:11-8.
- McFarland, L, Amalgam fillings: poisoning of America?, Scottsdale Progress, 1987, April 29, p. 21.
- McKenzie JM. Alteration of the zinc and copper concentration of hair. Am J Clin Nutr. 1978; 31:470-6.
- McKenzie, JM, Tissue concentration of cadmium, zinc, and copper from autopsy samples, New Zealand J Med. 1974; 79:1016-1019.
- McKeowen, GE, Prevalence of neurological abnormality in Cree Indians exposed to methylmercury in Northern Quebec, Clin Investig Med., 1983;6(3):161-169.
- McKeown, GE, and Ruedy, J, Methyl mercury exposure in Northern Quebec. I. Neurologic findings in adults, Amer J of Epidemiol., 1983;118(4).
- Medeiros DM, Borgman RF. Relationship of blood pressure with hair mineral concentrations in South Carolina adolescents, Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 1982;29:190-195.
- Medeiros DM, Mazhar A, Brunett EW, Failure of oral zinc supplementation to alter hair zinc levels among healthy human males, Nutr Res., 1987;7:1109-1116.
- Medeiros DM, Pellum LK, Brown BJ. The association of selected hair minerals and anthrpopmetric factors with blood pressure in a normotensive adult populatio,. Nutr Research 1983;3:51-60.
- Medeiros DM, Pellum LK. Blood pressure and hair cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc concentrations in Mississippi adolescents. Bull. Environm. Contam. Toxicol. 1985;34:163-169.
- Medeiros DM, Pellum LK. Elevation of hair cadmium, lead, and zinc in adult black female hypertensives, Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 1984;32:525-532.
- Medeiros DM, Pellum LK. Blood pressure and hair cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc concentrations in Mississippi adolescents. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1985 Feb; 34(2):163-9.
- Medeiros DM. The copper:zinc hypothesis and cardiovascular disease, Biochem Arch, 1985.
- Medeiros DM. Trace human hair (Letter), Lancet, 1982;8296:608.
- Medeiros, DM, Blood Pressure in Young Adults as Influenced by Copper and Zinc Intake, Biol Trace Elem Res., 1983;5(3)165-174.
- Medeiros, DM, Copper and Sodium Concentration in Rat Hair As Related to Dietary Intake, Nutr Res., 1983;3:923-928.
- Medeiros, DM, et al., Blood pressure in Young Adults as Associated with Dietary Habits, Body Conformation, and Hair Element Concentrations, Nutr. Res., 1982;2:455-466.
- Medeiros, DM, Trace elements in human hair, Lancet, 1982, September 11.
- Meng Z. Age- and sex-related differences in zinc and lead levels in human hair. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998 Jan; 61(1):79-87.
- Mertz W. Confirmation: chromium levels in serum, hair and sweat decline with age. Nutr Rev. 1997; 55(10):373-5.
- Mertz, W, Chromium occurrence and function in biological systems, Physio Rev., 1969;49(2):165-239.
- Mertz, W, The role of trace elements in the aging process. Nutr Aging, Alan R. Liss, 229-240.
- Methylmercury: Environmental Health Criteria 101, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization:1990. WHO Series No. 101.
- Meyer N, Helynick B, Ledrans M, Le Goaster C, Kintz P, Michel A. Evaluation de l’impregnation biologique d’une population exposee a une concentration elevee en arsenic dans les eaux de distribution, Ferrette, 1997. Rev Epidem et Sante Publ. 1999; 47:315-21.
- Miekeley N, Dias Carneiro MTW, Porta da Silveira CL. How reliable are human hair reference intervals for trace elements? Sci Total Environ. 1998; 218:9-17.
- Mikasa H, Suzuki Y, Fujii N, Nishiyama K. Adsorption and elution of metals on hair. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1988 Jun; 16(1):59-66.
- Miyake B. A genetic electrophoretic variant of high-sulfur hair proteins for forensic hair comparisons. II. Practical application of electrophoretic analysis of hair protein to forensic hair comparisons. Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi. 1989 Feb; 43(1):9-15.
- Moon J, Smith TJ, Tamaro S, Enarson D, Fadl S, Davison AJ, Weldon L. Trace metals in scalp hair of children and adults in three Alberta Indian villages. Sci Total Environ. 1986 Oct; 54:107-25.
- Moore, MR et al., Contribution of lead in drinking water to blood lead, Lancet, 1977;2:661-662.
- Moro R, Gialanella G, Zhang YX, Perrone L, Di Toro R. Trace elements in full-term neonate hair. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis. 1992 Mar; 6(1):27-31.
- Morris, JS, Dietary Selenium in Humans, Toenails as an Indicator, Biol Trace Elem Res., 1983;5:529-537.
- Mottet NK, Body RL, Wilkens V, Burbacher TM. Biologic variables in the hair uptake of methylmercury from blood in the macaque monkey. Environ Res. 1987 Apr; 42(2):509-23.
- Muir, M, Current Controversies in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Heavy Metal Toxicity, Alter Complement Ther., June 1997.
- Myers, RJ, Regeneration and rate of growth of hairs in man, Ann NY Acad Sci., 1951;27(53):562-8.
- National Research Council (NRC), Recommended Dietary Allowances, Washington, DC, National Academy of Sciences, 1989, etc.
- National Research Council. Toxicological Effects of Methyl mercury. National Academy Press: Washington, DC, 2000.
- Naylor GJ, Sheperd B, Treliving L, McHarg A, Smith A, Ward N, Harper M. Tissue aluminum concentrations stability over time, relationship to age, and dietary intake. Biol Psychiat. 1990; 27:884-90.
- Needleman, H, Childhood exposure to lead. A common cause of school failure. Phi Delta Kappa, Sep. 1992;24(1):35-37.
- Needleman, H, et al., The long-term effects of exposure to low doses of lead in childhood, NEJM 1990; 322(2):83-88.
- Needleman, H., Gatsonis, CA, Low-level (lead) exposure and the IQ of children: a meta-analysis of modern studies. JAMA 1990;263(5)673-679.
- Nickel, DJ, How does traditional Chinese medicine work? An atomic answer, Int J Acupuncture Oriental Med., 1995;6(1-4)26-29.
- Nielsen JB, Andersen O, Grandjean P. Evaluation of mercury in hair, blood and muscle as biomarkers for methylmercury exposure in male and female mice. Arch Toxicol. 1994; 68(5):317-21.
- Nishiyama, K, Adsorption and Elution of Cadmium on Hair, Arch Environ Health, 1972;25(2):92-6.
- Nolan, KR, Copper Toxicity Syndrome, J Orthomol Psych., 1983;12(4):270-282.
- Nordberg, G, Whole-body and hair retention of cadmium in mice, Arch Environ Health, 1972;24.
- Nordberg, G et. a, Factors Influencing Metabolism and Toxicity of Metals: A Concensus Report, Environ. Hlth Persp. 1978; 25: 3-41.
- Nowak B, Chmielnicka J. Relationship of lead and cadmium to essential elements in hair, teeth, and nails of environmentally exposed people. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2000 Jul; 46(3):265-74.
- Nowak B, Kozlowski H. Heavy metals in human hair and teeth: the correlation with metal concentrations in the environment. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998 Jun; 62(3):213-28.
- Nowak B. Contents and relationship of elements in human hair for a non-industrialised population in Poland. Sci Total Environ. 1998 Jan 8; 209(1):59-68.
- Nowak B. Occurrence of heavy metals, sodium, calcium, and potassium in human hair, teeth, and nails. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1996 Apr; 52(1):11-22.
- Ohnesorge, WM et al, Uptake of aluminum, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc by human scalp hair and elution of the adsorbed metals, J Anal Toxicol., 1989;13(1):17-21.
- Oishi M, et al., Hair trace elements in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Trace Elem. Med. 1990;7(4):182-85.
- Ojo JO, Oluwole AF, Durosinmi MA, Asubiojo OI, Akanle OA, Spyrou NM. Correlations between trace element levels in head hair and blood components of Nigerian subjects. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1994; 43-45:453-9.
- Okamoto K, Morita M, Quan H, Uehiro T, Fuwa K. Preparation and certification of human hair powdered reference material. Clin Chem. 1985; 31:1592-7.
- Okarsson, A, et al., Mercury Levels in Hair from People Eating Large Quantities of Swedish Freshwater Fish, Food Addit. Contam. 1990.
- Olguin, A, Arsenic levels in blood, urine, hair and nails from a chronically exposed human population, Proc West Pharmacol Soc., 1983;26:175-177.
- Othman I , Spyrou NM. The abundance of some elements in hair and nail from the Machakos District of Kenya. Sci Total Environ. 1980; 16:267-78.
- Pachotikarn C, Medeiros DM, Windham FW. Effect of oral zinc supplementation upon plasma lipids, blood pressure, and other variables, in young adult white males. Nutr. Rep. Internal. 1986;32:373-382.
- Paschal DC, DiPietro ES, Phillips DL, Gunter EW. Age dependence of metals in hair in a selected U.S. population. Environ Res. 1989 Feb; 48(1):17-28.
- Patrick, J. Leukocyte zinc in the assessment of zinc status, CRC Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 1984;20(2).
- Pellizzari ED, Fernando R, Cramer GM, Meaburn GM, Bangerter K. Analysis of mercury in hair of EPA Region V population. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1999 Sep-Oct; 9(5):393-401.
- Perrone L, Moro R, Caroli M, Di Toro R, Gialanella G. Trace elements in hair of healthy children sampled by age and sex. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1996 Jan; 51(1):71-6.
- Petering, HG et al., Trace metal content of hair: Cadmium and lead content of human hair in relation to age and sex, Arch Environ Health 1973; 27:327- 330.
- Peters, HA, Seasonal arsenic exposure from burning chromium-copper-arsenate-treated wood, JAMA, 1984;251(18), May 11, 1984.
- Pfeiffer, C, Psychiatric Hospital vs. Brain Bio Center in diagnosis of biochemical imbalances, J Orthomol Psych., 1976;5(1)28-34.
- Pfeiffer, C, Zinc and manganese in the schizophrenias, J Orthomol Psych, 1983;12(3):215-224.
- Phelps, RW, et al., Interrelationships of Blood and Hair Mercury Concentrations in a North American Population Exposed to Methylmercury, Arch Environ Health, 1980;35(3).
- Piccinini R, Candela S, Messori M, Viappiani F. Blood and hair lead levels in 6-year old children according to their parents’ occupation. G Ital Med Lav. 1986 Mar; 8(2):65-8.
- Piccinini, L, et al., A case-control study on selenium, zinc, and copper in plasma and hair of subjects affected by breast and lung cancer., Biol Trace Elem Res., 1996;51:23-27.
- Pihl RO, Drake H, Vrana F. Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Hair Analysis in Learning and Behavior Problems. In: Hair, Trace Elements, and Human Illness. Brown AC, Crounse RG, editors. Praeger Publications, 1980.
- Pihl, RO et al, Hair: A diagnostic tool to complement blood serum and urine, Science, 1978;202:1271-1273.
- Pihl, RO, Parkes, M, Hair element content in learning disabled children, Science, 1977;198:204-206.
- Pineau A, Guillard O, Huguet F, Spech M, Gelot S, Boiteau H. An evaluation of the biological significance of aluminum in plasma and hair of patients on long-term hemodialysis. Eur J Pharmacol. 1993; 228:263-8.
- Politt, E et al., Protein-calorie malnutrition and behavior: A view from psychology, in Nutrition And The Brain, Vol. 2, Wurtman, RJ and Wurtman, JJ (eds), Raven Press, NY, 1977.
- Pollit et al, Behavoral effects of iron deficiency in children, in Iron Deficiency Brain Biochemistry and Behavior, Politt, E and Liegbel, R, (eds), 1982.
- Ponce RA et al., Uncertainty analysis methods for comparing predictive models and biomarkers: a case study of dietary methyl mercury exposure. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1998; 28(2):96-105.
- Potering, HG, Yeager, DW, Witherup, S0, Trace metal content of hair. I. Zinc and copper content of hair in relation to age and sex, Arch Environ Health 1971;23: 202.
- Pounds CA, Pearson EF, Turner TD. Arsenic in fingernails. J For Sci Soc. 1979; 19:165-73.
- Powar, A, Caroli, S, Reference values for elements of toxicological, clinical and environmental interest in hair of urban subjects, Ann Ist Super Sanita, 1989;25:385-392.
- Prasad, AS, The role of zinc in gastrointestinal and liver disease. Clin Gastroenterology, 1983;12:3, Sept 1983.
- Prasad, AS, Zinc deficiency in human subjects. In Zinc Metabolism, AS Prasad, Ed., CC Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1966, pp.250-301.
- Pratt, WB, Phippen, WG, Elevated hair copper level in idopathic scoliosis, J Spine, 1980;5(3).
- Puchyr R, Bass D, Gajewski R, Calvin M, Marquardt W, Urek K, Druyan ME, Quig DW. Preparation of hair for measurement of elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998; 62(3):167-182.
- Quarterman, J, “Lead”, in Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, 5th ed, Mertz, W., ed, Academic Press, NY, 1980.
- Rabinowitz M, Wetherill G, Kopple J. Delayed appearance of tracer lead in facial hair. Arch Environ Health. 1976; 31:220-3.
- Rabinowitz, MB, Effects of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. Diabetes Care, 1981;6(4), July/August.
- Raghupathy L, Harada M, Ohno H, Naganuma A, Imura N, Doi R. Methods of removing external metal contamination from hair samples for environmental monitoring. Sci Total Environ. 1988 Dec; 77(2-3):141-51.
- Raloff, J, Locks – A key to violence, Science News, 1983;24, 8/20/1983.
- Rasmussen, OG, Toward standardization of hair analysis procedures, Postgrad Med., 1983;73:44-45.
- Read, MS, Malnutrition, hunger and behavior. II. Hunger, school feeding programs and behavior, J Amer Diet Assn., 1973;63:386-381.
- Rechcigl, M. (ed. in chief): CRC Handbook Series in Nutrition and Food, section E: Nutritional Disorders; III Effect of Nutrient Deficiences in Man. Also in the same volume: Nutritional Disorders; I Effect of Nutrient Excess and Toxicities in Animals and Man, CRC Press Inc., 2255 Palm Beach Lakes Blvd., West Palm Beach, Florida, 33409, 1978.
- Rees, EL, Aluminum poisoning of Papua New Guinea natives as shown by hair analysis data, J Orthomol Psych, 1983;12(4):312.
- Rees, EL, Aluminum Toxicity as Indicated by hair analysis. J Orthomol Psych, 1979;8,(1):37-43.
- Reeves, RD, Jolley, KW, Buck-Ley, PD, Lead in Human Hair: Relation to Age, Sex, and Environmental Factors, Bull Environ Contam Toxicol., 1975,14:579-587.
- Reinhold, JG, Kfoury, GA, Ghalambor, MA, Bennett, JC, Zinc and copper concentrations in hair of Iranian villagers, Am J Clin Nutr.,1966;18:294.
- Reninger, JE, The multi-disciplinary treatment of hyperactive learning-disabled children, J Ortho Psych., 1980;9(3):171-182.
- Renshaw GD, Pounds CA, Pearson EF. Variation in lead concentration along single hairs as measured by noon-flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nature. 1972; 238:162-3.
- Ricks, CM, Horton, RJ M. Hair trace metal levels and environmental exposure, Am J Epidem., 1971;69: 84-92.
- Rimland, B, and Larson, GE, Hair mineral analysis and behavior: An analysis of 51 studies, J Learn Disab, 1983;16: 279-285.
- Risher, JF, Murray, HE and Prince, GR, Organic mercury compounds: human exposure and its relevance to public health, Toxicol Indust Health, 2002;18(3):109-160.
- Rivlin, RS, Misuse of nutritional assessment, Am J Med., 1983;75:489-493.
- Roberts DJ, Green P. Adsorption of cadmium onto human hair. Sci Total Environ. 1985 Mar 15; 42(1-2):207-11.
- Rockway SW, Weber CW, Lei KY, Kemberling SR. Lead concentrations of milk, blood, and hair in lactating women. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1984; 53(3):181-7.
- Rollins D et al. Society of Forensic Toxicologists meeting, Snowbird, UT. 2000.
- Rossi, LC, Mercury and selenium distribution in a defined area and in its population, Arch Environ Health., 1976;31(3):160–165.
- Rothe M et al. Effect of pigmentation on the drug deposition in hair of grey-haired subjects. Forensic Sci Int. 1997 Jan 17; 84(1-3):53-60.
- Ryabuhkin YS. Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency, Report 50, 1978.
- Ryan. DE, Trace elements in scalp-hair of persons with multiple sclerosis and of normal individuals, Clin Chem., 1978;24(11).
- Sachs H. Theoretical limits of the evaluation of drug concentrations in hair due to irregular hair growth. Forensic Sci Int. 1995 Jan 5; 70(1-3):53-61.
- Sakai T, Wariishi M, Nishiyama K. Changes in trace element concentrations in hair of growing children. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2000; 77:43-51.
- Salbe AD, Levander OA, Effect of various dietary factors on the deposition of selenium in the hair and nails of rats. J Nutr. 1990; 120:200-6.
- Salmela S, Vuori E, Kilpoio JO. The effect of washing procedures on trace element content of human hair, Anal Chim Acta. 1981; 125:131-7.
- Sandford, MK, Elemental hair analysis: new evidence on the etiology of cribra orbitalia in Sudanese nubia, Human Biology, 1983;55(4):831-844.
- Saner, G, et al., Hair manganese concentrations in newborns and their mothers, Am J Clin Nutr., 1985;41:1042-1044.
- Sanstead, NH, Nutrient interactions with toxic elements, Adv Modem Toxicol, 1977;2: 241-256.
- Sato R, Uematsu T, Sato R, Yamaguchi S, Nakashima M. Human Scalp hair as evidence of individual dosage history of haloperidol: prospective study, Ther Drug Monit. 1989 Nov; 11(6):686-91.
- Schauss, AG A review of 137 cases of ADD-Hyperactivity. Also, Twelve rules for establishing good eating patterns in 3-7 year olds: The formative years, Also, Twelve changes of the twentieth century that affect dietary habits in modernized countries, Presentations at the Conference on Nutrition and Behavior, John Radcliffe hospital, Oxford University, England, July, 1985, in Nutrition And Antisocial Behavior, Brian Shuppan: Tokyo, 1986.
- Schauss, AG et al, Random analysis of the diets of chronic delinquents, J Orthomol Psych., 1979;8(3):149-157 and 1979;8(4):222-226.
- Schauss, AG, New findings on nutrition and its application in the behavioral sciences, Controlled hair mineral analysis study of violent and sociopathic prisoners, presentation, First International Conference on Nutritional Therapy in Medicine, 6/26/1983.
- Schlegel-Zawadzka, M, Chromium content in the hair of children and students in southern Poland, Biol Trace Elem Res. 1992 Jan-Mar; 32:79-84.
- Schmid, F.:Mineralien und Spuren- elemente in lyophilisierten Geweben, Cytbiol. Review 1982; 2: 89-95.
- Schmidt et al., Clinical ecological study of chronic juvenile delinquents, Int J Biosocial Res, 1981;2:15-20.
- Schmitt, WH, Molybdenum for candida albicans patients and other problems, Dig Chiro Econ., 1989, Jan/Feb.:56-63.
- Schnell, RC, Angle, CR, Symposium: Selenium, toxin or panacea, Fund Appl Toxicol, 1983;3:409-410.
- Schoenthaler, S, Alabama diet-behavior program: an empirical evaluation at Coosa Valley Regional Detention Center, In J biosocial Res., 1983;5(2):78-87.
- Schoenthaler, S, Double-blind detention home study: Refined sugar goes on trial, In J Biosocial Res., 1982;3(1):1-9.
- Schoenthaler, S, Types of offenses which can be reduced in an institutional setting using nutritional intervention: a preliminary empirical evaluation, Int J Biosocial Res., 1983;4(2):74-84.
Schroeder, HA, Nason, AP: Trace Metals in Human Hair, J Investig Dermatol, 1969;53:71-78.
- Schroeder, HA, The role of chromium in mammalian nutrition, Am J Clin Nutr, 1968;21(3):230-44.
- Schuhmacher M, Belles M, Rico A, Domingo JL, Corbella J. Impact of reduction of lead in gasoline on the blood and hair lead levels in the population of Tarragona Province, Spain, 1990-1995. Sci Total Environ. 1996 May 31; 184(3):203-9.
- Schuhmacher M, Domingo, JL, Llobet, JM, Corbella, J, Lead in children’s hair, as related to exposure in Tarragona Province, Spain. Sci Total Environ. 1991 May 15; 104(3):167-73.
- Schweinsberg F, Baron P, Hahn W, Hermann U, Tausch-Walz G, Determination and assessment of the content of lead, cadmium and mercury in hair, nails and organs of persons in clean and polluted areas. Schriftenr Ver Wasser Boden Lufthyg. 1987; 71:91-100. German.
- Seidel S, Kreutzer R, Smith D, McNeel S, Gilliss D. Assessment of commercial laboratories performing hair mineral analysis. JAMA. 2001 Jan. 3; 285(1):67-72.
- Sen J, Chaudhuri AB. Human hair lead and copper levels in three occupationally unexposed population groups in Calcutta. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1996 Aug; 57(2):321-6.
- Setyaadmadja, A, Cheras- Kin, E., Ringdorf, WM, Ascorbic Acid and Carbohydrate Metabolism, J. Am. Gerat. Soc. 1965; 13: 924-934.
- Shamberger, RJ, Validity of hair mineral testing, Biol Trace Min Res., 2002;87(1-3).
- Shanghai Inst. Nuclear Res. Certification of Certified Reference Material, Human Hair (GBW 09101). Shanghai: State Bureau Technical Supervision; 1988.
- Sharnes RS, Adelman DC. Clinical immunology. In: LaDou J, ed., Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 2nd ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange; 1997:196-99.
- Sheard EA, Johnson MK, Cater RJ, The Determination of Chromium in Hair and Other Biological Material. Hair, Trace Elements and Human Illness. New York, NY: Praeger; 1980.
- Sherertz EC. Misuse of hair analysis as a diagnostic tool, Arch Dermatol. 1985 Dec; 121(12):1504-5. Editorial.
- Sherlock JD, Lindasy DG, Hislop JE, Evans WH, Collier TR. Archives Environ Health. 1982; 37:271-8.
- Sherlock, J, Elevation of mercury in human blood from controlled chronic ingestion of methylmercury in fish, Human toxicol., 1984;3:117-131.
- Shi CY, Lane AT, Clarkson TW. Uptake of mercury by the hair of methylmercury-treated newborn mice. Environ Res. 1990 Apr; 51(2):170-81.
- Shimojo N, Homma-Takeda S, Ohuchi K, Shinyashiki M, Sun GF, Kumagai Y. Mercury dynamics in hair of rats exposed to methylmercury by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence imaging. Life Sci. 1997; 60(23):2129-37.
- Shinohara A, Chiba M, Inaba Y. Determination of germanium in human specimens: comparative study of atomic absorption spectrometry and microwave-induced plasma mass spectrometry. J Anal Toxicol. 1999; 23:625-31.
- Sikorski R, Paszkowski T, Szprengier-Juszkiewicz T. Mercury in neonatal scalp hair. Sci Total Environ. 1986 Dec 1; 57:105-10.
- Six, K. M. and Goyer, R. A. 1970. Experimental enhancement of lead toxicity by low dietary calcium. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 76: 933-942.
- Sky-Peck HH. Distribution of trace elements in human hair. Clin Physiol Biochem. 1990; 8(2):70-80.
- Smith JC, Allen PV, Von Burg R. Hair methylmercury levels in U.S. women. Arch Environ Health. 1997 Nov-Dec; 52(6):476-80.
- Smith, BL, Analysis of hair element levels by age, sex, race, and hair color. Unpublished paper.
- Smith, BL, Cardiovascular risk as related to an element pattern in hair, Trace Elem Med, 1987;4(3):131-133.
- Smith, H, The interpretation of the arsenic content in human hair, J Forens Sci Soc, 1964;4:192-99.
- Sobol, AE, et al, The Biochemical behavior of lead, Influence of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D on lead in blood and bone, J Biol Chem.; 1939;128:239-265.
- Solarska, K., et al., Concentration of Magnesium in Hair of Inhabitants of Down-Town Krakow, The Protective Zone of Steel-Mill “Hutaim Sendzimira” and Tokarania Village. Przel Lek. 1995.
- Sorenson, JFJ et al, Interferences in the Determination of Metallic Elements in Human Hair, Arch Environ Health 1973;27:36-41.
- Soria ML, Sanz P, Martinez D, Lopez-Artiguez M, Garrido R, Grilo A, Repetto M. Total mercury and methylmercury in hair, maternal and umbilical blood, and placenta from women in the Seville area. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1992 Apr; 48(4):494-501.
- Srivastava AK, Gupta BN. The role of human hairs in health and disease with special reference to environmental exposures. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1994 Dec; 36(6):556-60. Review.
- Steindel SJ, Howanitz PJ. The uncertainty of hair analysis for trace metals. JAMA. 2001 Jan. 3; 285(1):83-5. Editorial.
- Stephenson J. X-ray analysis of hair reveals breast cancer. JAMA. 1999 May 5 ;281(17):1578-9.
- Stevens, B.J., Determination of Aluminum, Copper, and Zinc in Human Hair. Atomic Spectroscopy, 1983.
- Stoch, MD and SMythe, PM, Does undernutrition during infancy inhibit brain growth and subsequent intellectual development?, Arch Disease Child., 1963;38:546-552.
- Strain, WH , Hair analysis for the observation of magnesium deficiency or excess, in Magnesium in Health and Disease. Spectrum Pub. 1980.
- Strain, WH, et. al., Analysis of zinc levels in hair for the diagnosis of zinc deficiency in man, J Lab Clin Med., 1966;68(2):244–249.
- Strain, WH, Head hair analysis for study of aging, AGE, 1978;1(2):77.
- Strain, WH, Pories, A.,Hill, O., Trace element nutriture and metabolism through head hair analysis”, from Trace Substances in Environmental Health, Ed. By Hemphill, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO,1972, 1974.
- Stuempler, RE, et al, Hair mineral analysis and disruptive behavior in clinically normal young men, J Learning Disabilities, 1985;18(10)609-612.
- Suzuki T, Matsubara-Khan J, Matsuda A, Measurement of mercury in human hair, Arch Environ Health, 1974;28(3):139–144.
- Suzuki T. Hair and nails: advantages and pitfalls when used in biological monitoring. In: Clarkson TW, Friberg L, Nordberg GF, Sager PR, eds. Biological Monitoring of Toxic Metals. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1988:623-640.
- Suzuki, T, An acute mercuric mercury poisoning: Chemical speciation of hair mercury shows a peak of inorganic mercury value, Human Exper Toxic, 1992;11(1):53-57.
- Suzuki, T, et al., Effects of Long-Term Anticonvulsants Therapy on Copper, Zinc, and Magnesium in Hair and Serum of Epileptics. J. Biol. Psychiatry. 1992;31(6):571-581.
- Takeuchi T, Nakano Y, Aoki A, Ohmori S, Kasuya M. Elemental concentrations in hair of inhabitants of a cadmium-polluted area. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1990 Jul-Dec; 26-27:263-8.
- Tamari, GM, Rona, Z, Hair mineral levels and their correlation with abnormal glucose tolerance, Cytobiol Rev., 1985;4:191-196.
- Taneja SK, Mohajan M, Gupta S, Singh KP. Assessment of copper and zinc status in hair and urine of young women descendants of NIDDM parents. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998; 62:255-64.
- Taylor A. Usefulness of measurements of trace elements in hair. Ann Clin Biochem. 1986;23:364-378.
- Tempero, MM, Serum and hair selenium levels in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, Biol Trace Elem Res., 1984;6.
- Teresa M, Vasconcelos SD, Tavares HMF. Trace element concentrations in blood and hair of young apprentices of a technical-professional school. Sci Total Environ. 1997; 205:189-99.
- Thatcher, R, et al., Effects of low levels of cadmium and lead on cognitive functioning in children, Arch Environ Health 1982;37(3):159-66.
- Thatcher, RW, Evoked potentials related to hair cadmium and lead in children, Annals NYAcad Sci, 1984;425:384-90.
- Thatcher, RW, Intelligence and lead toxins in rural children, J Learn Disab., 1983;6.
- Thimaya, S, and Ganapathy, SN, Selenium in human hair in relation to age, diet, pathological condition and serum levels, Sci Tot Environ., 1982; 24:41-49.
- Thompson, ABR et al, Interrelation of intestinal transport system for manganese and iron, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1971; 78: 642-655.
- Thorne BM, Donohoe T, Lin KN, Lyon S, Medeiros DM, Weaver ML. Aluminum ingestion and behavior in the Long-Evans rat, Physiol Behav., 1986;36:63-67.
- Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry, 4th ed, W.B. Saunders Co; 1996:773-828.
- Tracqui A, Bosque MA, Costa V, Kintz P, Siegel F, Mangin P. Lack of relationship between hair lead levels and some usual markers (blood lead levels, ZPP, urinary ALA-D) in occupationally exposed workers. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 1994; 52(11):769-73.
- Trinchi, V et al., Emission spectrophotometric analysis of titanium, aluminum, and vanadium levels in the blood, urine, and hair of patients with total hip replacement, Ital J Orthop Traumatol. 1992;18(3):331-9.
- Tshiashala MD, Kabengele K, Lumu BM. Trace element determination in scalp hair of people working at a copper smelter. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1990 Jul-Dec; 26-7:287-94.
- Tucek, J, Contribution to the problem of environmental contamination with mercury, And. Immunology, 1981;25(4): 354-363.
- Tucker, DM et al, Iron status and brain function, Am J Clin Nutr., 1984;39:105-113.
- Tuthill, RW, Hair lead levels related to children’s classroom attention-deficit behavior, Arch Environ Health, 1996;51(3):214-20.
- Tuttle, WW, Daum, K and Larsen, R et al, Effect on school boys of omitting breakfast: Physiologic responses, attitudes and scholastic attainment, J Am Dietetic Assn., 1954;30:674-677.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System, Methyl mercury, https://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0073.htm
- United States Federal Laboratory Requirements, 42 (CFR) 1999493.801,493.803 and 493.1709.
- Valentine JL, King HK, Spivey G. Arsenic levels in human blood, urine, and hair in response to exposure via drinking water. Environ Res. 1979; 20:24-32.
- Valentine, JL, Kang, HK, Spivey, G.: Selenium Levels in Human Blood, Urine and Hair in Response to Exposure via Drinking Water, Environ. Res. 1978; 17: 347-355.
- Van den Berg AJ, de Bruin M, Hortman JPW. Sorption behavior of trace elements in human hair. In: Nuclear Activation Techniques in the Life Sciences. Vienna, IAEA; 1967:661-74.
- Van den Berg AJ, de Geoij JJM, Houtman JPW et al. Arsenic content of human hair after washing as determined by activation analysis. In: DeVoe JR, ed. Modern Trends in Activation Analysis, Vol. I. Washington, DC: NBS; 1968:272-82.
- Vance DE, Ehmann WD, Markesbery WR. Trace element content in fingernails and hair of a nonindustrialized US control population. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1988 Sep-Dec; 17:109-21.
- Varkonyi, A, et al., Determination of hair trace elements in childhood celiac disease and in cystic fibrosis, Acta Paediatr Hung., 1992;32(2):159-65.
- Vaughan, GT, Florence, TM, Platinum in the human diet, blood, hair and excreta, Sci Tot Environ. 1992;111(1):47-58.
- Vienna A, Capucci E, Wolfsperger M, Hauser G. Heavy metal concentration in hair of students in Rome. Anthropol Anz. 1995 Mar; 53(1):27-32.
- Viovanoli-Jakubczak, T, Measurement of mercury in human hair, Arch Environ Health, 1974;28, March.
- Vir SC, Love AHG. Zinc and copper nutritive of women taking oral contraceptive agents. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 34:1479-83.
- Vivoli, G, et al., Relationship between zinc in serum and hair and some hormones during sexual maturation in humans, Sci Tot Environ, 1990;95:29-40.
- Vobecky, J et al., Hair and urine chromium content in 30 hospitalized female psychogeriatric patients and mentally healthy controls, Nutr Reports Intl., 1980;22(1):49-55.
- Walker, M, Excessive tissue manganese as a cause of anti-social behavior, Townsend Let For Doctors, 1994, December:1328-1334.
- Walsh, W, Can the predisposition to violence hang on a hair?. Also, Hair tells violence bent?, Medical Tribune, 1984;25(21), 7/25/84.
- Wang, CT, et al., Studies on the concentrations of arsenic, selenium, copper, zinc and iron in the hair of blackfoot disease patients in different clinical stages, Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem, 1994;32(3):107-11.
- Wang, YX, et al., Study on the relation of selenium, manganese, iron, strontium, lead, zinc, copper, and calcium to liver cancer mortality from analysis of scalp hair, Sci Tot Environ., 1990.
- Watt F, Landsberg J, Powell JJ, Ede RJ, Thompson RP, Cargnello JA. Analysis of copper and lead in hair using the nuclear microscope; results from normal subjects, and patients with Wilson’s disease and lead poisoning. Analyst. 1995 Mar; 120(3):789-91.
- Watts D., Nutrient interrelationships: minerals-vitamins-endocrines, Dig Chiro Econ., 1989;Jan-Feb:67-76.
- Webb, TE, Oski, FA, Behavioral status of young adolescents with iron deficiency anemia, J Spec Educ., 1974;8(2):153-156.
- Weber, CW et al., Trace elements in the hair of healthy and malnourished children, J Trop Pediatr, 1990;36(5):230-234.
- Weiss, B, Behavioral toxicology and environmental health science. Opportunity and challenge for psychology, Am Psychologist,1983;38(11):1174-87.
- Well Mind Assoc. News, Significant quotes about manganese, March 1987.
- Wennig R. Potential problems with the interpretation of hair analysis results. Forensic Sci Int. 2000 Jan 10; 107(1-3):5-12. Review.
- Wessel, D, Hair as history: advantages seen in new methods for drug testing, Wall St J., 1987, Friday, May 22.
- Whanger, PD, Cadmium effects in rats on tissue iron, selenium, and blood pressure: blood and hair cadmium in some Oregon residents, Environ Health Perspectives, 1979;28:115-121.
- Wheatley, B, Paradis, S, Exposure of Canadian aboriginal peoples to methylmercury, J Water Air Soil Pollution, 1995;80(1-4).
- Wibowo AE, Herber RM, Das HA, Roeleveld N, Zielhuis RL, The feasibility of using lead in hair concentration in monitoring environmental exposure in children, J Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 1980;46(3).
- Wilhelm M, Idel H. Hair analysis in environmental medicine. Zeutralblatt for Hygiene Umweltmedizin. 1996 Jul; 198(6):485-501. Review.
- Wilhelm M, Lombeck I, Hafner D, Ohnesorge FK. Hair lead levels in young children from the FRG. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis. 1989 Sep; 3(3):165-70.
- Wilhelm M, Ohnesorge FK, Hotzel D. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in human scalp and pubic hair. Sci Total Environ. 1990 Mar; 92:199-206.
- Wilhelm M, Lombeck I, Ohnesorge FK. Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations in hair and toenails of young children and family members: a follow-up study. Sci Total Environ. 1994 Jan 25; 141(1-3):275-80.
- Wilhelm M, Scalp hair as an indicator of aluminum exposure: comparison to bone and plasma, Hum Toxicol., 1989;8(1):5-9.
- Wilhelm, M et al., Monitoring of cadmium, copper, and lead and zinc status in young children using toenails: Comparison with scalp hair, SciTot Environ., 1991;103(2-3):199-207.
- Wilhelm, M et al., Uptake of aluminum, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc by human scalp hair and elution or the adsorbed metals, J Anal Toxicol, 1989;13:17-21.
- Williams, G, Hair Raising Science, Omni magazine, November 1988:59-112.
- Wolff, M, Mercury toxicity and dental amalgam, Neurotoxicology, 1983;4 (3):201-204.
- Wolfsperger M, Hauser G, Gossler W, Schlagenhaufen C. Heavy metals in human hair samples from Austria and Italy: influence of sex and smoking habits. Sci Total Environ. 1994 Dec 1; 156(3):235-42.
- Wood RJ. Assessment of marginal zinc status in human. J Nutr 2000; 130:135S-1354S.
- World Health Organization (WHO), Biological monitoring of metals, Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1994.
- World Health Organization Expert Committee: Trace Elements in Human Nutrition, WHO Tech. Rep. Ser. 1973; 532.
- Wysocki, AA, Hair As an indicator of the calcium and phosphorus status of ponies, J Animal Sci., 32:1.
- Yamamoto R, Suzuki T. Effects of artificial hair-waving on hair mercury values. Int Arch Occup Environ Hlth. 1978; 42:1-9.
- Yamauchi H, Takahashi K, Mashiko M, Yamamura Y. Biological monitoring of arsenic exposure of gallium arsenide- and inorganic arsenic-exposed workers by determination of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine and hair. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1989 Nov; 50(11):606-12.
- Yokel, RA, Hair as an indicator of excessive aluminum exposure, Clin Chem., 1982;28:662-665.
- Yoshinaga J, Imai H, Nakazawa M, Suzuki T, Morita M. Lack of significantly positive correlations between elemental concentrations in hair and in organs. Sci Total Environ. 1990 Dec 1; 99(1-2):125-35.
- Young EG, Rice FAH: On the occurrence of arsenic in human hair and its medicological significance. J Lab Clin Med. 1944; 29:439-46.
- Zareba G, Goldsmith LA, Clarkson TW. Application of hair analysis for biological monitoring of toxic substances in space. SAE Technical Paper Series 932095, Warrendale, PA. 1993.
- Zeng L, Pang H, Liu C. [Analysis of human hair lead and zinc during various physiological periods]. Chung Hua Yu Fang I Hsueh Tsa Chih. 1996 Jul; 30(4):213-6. Chinese.
- Zhang F, Bi S, Zhang J, Bian N, Lui F, Yang Y. Differential pulse voltametric indirect determination of aluminum in drinking waters, blood, urine, hair, and medicament samples using L-dopa under alkaline conditions. Analyst. 2000; 125:1299-302.
- Zhuang GS, Wang YS, Tan MG, Zhi M, Pan WQ, Cheng YD. Preliminary study of the distribution of the toxic elements As, Cd, and Hg in human hair and tissues by RNAA. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1990 Jul-Dec; 26-27:729-36.
- Zhuk, L et al., Mapping technique based on elemental hair composition and data, Biol Trace Elem Res., 1990;26-27:307-320.